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Liposomal amphotericin B is being used increasingly to reduce the burden of kala-azar from the Indian subcontinent. There are studies which have evaluated efficacy and safety of liposomal amphotericin B for visceral leishmaniasis in all age groups. However, the only study that specifically addressed treatment of childhood visceral leishmaniasis did not include all ages or document renal and liver function. We, therefore, felt it was important to reassess the efficacy and safety of single dose liposomal amphotericin B in children and adolescents. A total of 100 parasitologically confirmed visceral leishmaniasis patients aged < 15 years were included in this study. Participants consisted of 65 males and 35 females. All of them had come from the endemic region of Bihar. They were administered one dose intravenous infusion of liposomal amphptericin B at 10 mg/kg body weight. Efficacy was assessed as initial and final cure at 1 and 6 months, respectively, and safety of all participants who were recruited in the study. The initial and final cure rate by per protocol analysis was 100% and 97.9%, respectively. Chills and rigors were the most commonly occurring adverse events (AEs). All the AEs were mild in intensity, and none of the patients experienced any serious AEs. No patients developed nephrotoxicity. Our finding indicates that liposomal amphotericin B at 10 mg/kg body weight is safe and effective in children. Results of our study support the use of single dose liposomal amphotericin B in all age group populations for elimination of kala-azar from the Indian subcontinent.
Authors’ addresses: Krishna Pandey, Vidya Nand Rabi Das, and Rakesh Kumar, Department of Clinical Medicine, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (Indian, Council of Medical Research), Patna, Bihar, India, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Biplab Pal, Krishna Murti, and Rajendra Babu, Department of Pharmacy Practice, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur, Bihar, India, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Niyamat Ali Siddiqui, Department of Biostatistics, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (Indian Council, of Medical Research), Patna, Bihar, India, E-mail: email@example.com. Chandra Shekhar Lal and Vahab Ali, Department of Biochemistry, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (Indian Council of Medical Research), Patna, Bihar, India, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Neena Verma, Department of Pathology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (Indian Council of Medical Research), Patna, Bihar, India, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Pradeep Das, Department of Molecular Biology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (Indian, Council of Medical Research), Patna, Bihar, India, E-mail: Drpradeep.email@example.com.