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Several species of Plasmodium are responsible for causing malaria in humans. Proper diagnoses are crucial to case management, because severity and treatment varies between species. Diagnoses can be made using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), which detect Plasmodium proteins. Plasmodium falciparum causes the most virulent cases of malaria, and P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) is a common target of falciparum malaria RDTs. Here we report a case in which a falciparum malaria patient in Bangladesh tested negative on PfHRP2-based RDTs. The negative results can be attributed to a deletion of part of the pfhrp2 gene and frameshift mutations in both pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene. This finding may have implications for malaria diagnostics and case management in Bangladesh and other regions of South Asia.
Financial support: This study was funded by the Swiss Academy of Medical Science (SAMS) and the Velux Foundation.
Authors’ addresses: Maisha Khair Nima, Mohammad Enayet Hossain, Mohammad Golam Kibria, Fatema Tuj Johora, Rajibur Rahman, Rashidul Haque, and Mohammad Shafiul Alam, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Thomas Hougard, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, E-mail: email@example.com. Abu Naser Mohon, Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta T2N1N4, Canada, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.