• 1.

    Mellanby K, 1944. The development of symptoms, parasitic infections and immunity in human scabies. Parasitol 35: 197206.

  • 2.

    Orkin M, Maibach H, 1985. Cutaneous Infestation and Insect Bites. New York, NY: Marcel Deeker.

  • 3.

    Pence DB, Ueckermann E, 2002. Sarcoptic mange in wildlife. Rev Sci Tech 21: 385398.

  • 4.

    Walton SF, Currie BJ, 2007. Problems in diagnosing scabies, a global disease in human and animal populations. Americ Soci for Microbiol 20: 268279.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Hengge UR, Currie BJ, Jager G, Lupi O, Schwartz RA, 2006. Scabies: a ubiquitous neglected skin disease. Lancet Infect Dis 6: 769779.

  • 6.

    Payne L, Fitchett JR, 2010. Bringing neglected tropical diseases into the spotlight. Trends Parasitol 26: 421423.

  • 7.

    Andrews RM, McCarthy J, Carapetis JR, Currie BJ, 2009. Skin disorders, including pyoderma, scabies, and tinea infections. Pediatr Clin North Am 56: 14211440.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Walton SF, Currie BJ, Kemp DJ, 1997. A DNA fingerprinting system for the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei. Mol Biochem Parasitol 85: 187196.

  • 8.

    Currie B, Huffam S, O’Brien D, Walton S, 1997. Ivermectin for scabies. Lancet 350: 1551.

  • 10.

    Roberts LJ, Huffam SE, Walton SF, 2005. Crusted scabies: clinical and immunological findings in seventy-eight patients and a review of the literature. J Infect 50: 375381.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Granholm JM, Olazewski J,2005. Scabies Prevention and Control Manual. Fenton, MI: Michigan Department of Community Health.

  • 12.

    Jayaraj RB, Viberg HL, Pizzuto S, Holt D, Rolland JM, O’hehir JRE, Currie BJ, Walton SF, 2011. A diagnostic test for scabies: IgE specificity for recombinant allergen of Sarcoptes scabiei. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 71: 403407.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Walter B, Heukelbach J, Fengler G, Worth C, Hengge U, Feldmeier H, 2011. Comparison of dermoscopy, skin scraping and the adhesive tape test for the diagnosis of scabies in a resource poor setting. Arch Dermatol 147: 468473.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Fukuyama S, Nishimura T, Yotsumoto H, Gushi A, Tsuji M, Kanekura T, Matsuyama T, 2010. Diagnostic usefulness of a nested polymerase chain reaction assay for detecting Sarcoptes scabiei DNA in skin scrapings from clinically suspected scabies. Br J Dermatol 163: 875899.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Guldbakke KK, Khachemoune A, 2006. Crusted scabies: a clinical review. J Drugs Dermatol 5: 221227.

  • 16.

    Bornstein S, Thebo P, Zakrisson G, 1996. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) for the serological diagnosis of canine sarcoptic mange. Vet Derm 7: 2128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Bornstein S, Wallgren P, 1997. Serodiagnosis of sarcoptic mange in pigs. Vet Rec 141: 812.

  • 18.

    Lowenstein M, Kahlbacher H, Peschke R, 2004. On the substantial variation in serological responses in pigs to Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis using different commercially available indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Parasitol Res 94: 2430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Casais R, Miguel P, Ana B, Paloma S, Francisco P, José MA, 2007. Identification and heterologous expression of a Sarcoptes scabiei cDNA encoding a structural antigen with immunodiagnostic potential. Vet Res 38: 435450.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Fischer K, Holt DC, Harumal P, Currie BJ, Walton SF, Kemp DJ, 2003. Generation and characterization of cDNA clones from Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis for an expressed sequence tag library: identification of homologues of house dust mite allergens. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 6164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Harumal P, Morgan M, Walton SF, Holt DC, Rode J, Arlian LG, Currie BJ, Kemp DJ, 2003. Identification of a homologe of a house dust mite allergen in a cDNA library from Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and evaluation of its vaccine potential in a rabbit/S. scabiei var. canis model. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 5460.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Holt DC, Fischer K, Allen GE, Wilson D, Wilson P, Slade R, Currie BJ, Walton SF, Kemp DJ, 2003. Mechanisms for a novel immune evasion strategy in the scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei: a multigene family of inactivated serine proteases. J Invest Dermatol 121: 14191424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Ljunggren EL, Nilsson D, Mattsson JG, 2003. Expressed sequence tag analysis of Sarcoptes scabiei. Parasitol 127: 139145.

  • 24.

    Dougall A, Holt DC, Fischer K, Currie BJ, Kemp DJ, Walton SF, 2005. Identification and characterization of Sarcoptes scabiei and Dermatophagoide spteronyssinus glutathione S-transferases: implication as a potential major allergen in crusted scabies. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 977984.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Walton SF, Pizzutto S, Slender A, Viberg L, Holt D, Hales BJ, Kemp DJ, Currie BJ, Rolland JM, O’Hehir R, 2010. Increased allergic immune response to Sarcoptes scabiei antigens in crusted versus ordinary scabies. Clin Vaccine Immunol 17: 14281438.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Rampton M, Walton SF, Holt DC, Pasay C, Kelly A, Currie BJ, McCarthy JS, Mounsey KE, 2013. Antibody responses to Sarcoptes scabiei apolipoprotein in a porcine model: relevance to immunodiagnosis of recent infection. PLoS One 8: e65354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Zheng Y, He R, He M, Gu X, Wang T, Lai W, Peng X, Yang G, 2016. Characterization of Sarcoptes scabiei cofilin gene and assessment of recombinant cofilin protein as an antigen in indirect ELISA for diagnosis. BMC Infect Dis 16: 21.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Fernandes J, Reshef A, Patton L, Ayuso R, Reese G, 2003. Immunoglobulin E antibody reactivity to the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin, in unexposed Orthodox Jews. Clin Exp Allergy 33: 956961.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Yi FC, Cheong N, Shek PC, Wang DY, Chua KY, Lee BW, 2002. Identification of shared and unique immunoglobulin E epitopes of the highly conserved tropomyosins in Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Clin Exp Allergy 32: 12031210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Reese G, Ayuso R, Lehrer SB, 1999. Tropomyosin: an invertebrate pan-allergen? Int Arch Allergy Immunol 119: 247258.

  • 31.

    Lehrer SB, Ayuso R, Reese G, 2003. Seafood allergy and allergens: a review. Mar Biotechnol (NY) 5: 339348.

  • 32.

    Reese G, Schicktanz S, Lauer I, Randow S, Lu¨ttkopf D, Vogel L, 2006. Structural, immunological and functional properties of natural recombinant Pen a 1,the major allergen of brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus. Clin Exp Allergy 36: 517524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Zhang R et al.., 2012. Characterization and evaluation of a Sarcoptes scabiei allergen as a candidate vaccine. Parasit Vectors 5: 176184.

  • 34.

    Thomas WR, Smith W, 1998. House-dust-mite allergens. Allergy 53: 821832.

  • 35.

    Tsai LC, Chao PL, Hung MW, Sun YC, Kuo IC, Chua KY, Liaw SH, 2000. Protein sequence analysis and mapping of IgE and IgG epitopes of an allergenic 98-kDa Dermatophagoides farina paramyosin, Der f 11. Allergy 55: 141147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Thomas WR, 2010. Geography of house dust mite allergens. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 28: 211224.

  • 37.

    Kenyon F, Welsh M, Parkinson J, Whitton C, Blaxter ML, Knox DP, 2003. Expressed sequence tag survey of gene expression in the scab mite Psoroptes ovis allergens, proteases and free-radical scavengers. Parasitol 126: 451460.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Huntley JF, Machell J, Nisbet AJ, Broek AD, Chua KY, Cheong N, Hales BJ, Thomas WR, 2004. Identification of tropomyosin, paramyosin and apolipophorin/vitellogenin as three major allergens of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis. Parasite Immunol 26: 335342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Geoffrey NG, McManus DP, 2005. Update on paramyosin in parasitic worms. Parasitol Int 54: 101107.

  • 40.

    Erban T, 2011. Purification of tropomyosin, paramyosin, actin, tubulin, troponin and kinases for chemiproteomics and its application to different scientific fields. PLoS One 6: 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Dahmen A, Gallin M, Schumacher M, Erttmann KD, 1993. Molecular cloning and pre-mRNA maturation of Onchocerca volvulus paramyosin. Mol Biochem Parasitol 57: 335338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Song J, Li L, Zhigang L, Qiyuan L, Pixin R, 2009. Sequence analysis and expression of a cDNA clone encoding tropomysin in Sinonovacula constricta. Mol Biol Rep 36: 315321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Mattson JG, Ljunggren EL, Bergstrom K, 2001. Paramyosin from parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei: cDNA cloning and heterologous expression. Parasitol 122: 555562.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S, 2013. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30: 27252729.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Nisbet AJ, Mackellar A, Wright HW, Brennan GP, Chua KY, Cheong N, Thomas JE, Huntley JF, 2006. Molecular characterization, expression and localization of tropomyosin and paramyosin immuno-dominant allergens from sheep scab mites (Psoroptes ovis). Parasitol 133: 515523.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Arlian LG, Vyszenski-Moher DL, Ahmed SG, Estes SA, 1991. Cross-antigenicity between the scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, and the house dust mite, Dermatophagoidespteronyssinus. J Invest Dermatol 96: 349361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Jeong KY, Yum HY, Lee IY, Ree HI, Hong CS, Kim DS, Yong TS, 2004. Molecular cloning and characterization of tropomyosin, a major allergen of Chironomus kiiensis, a dominant species of non-biting midges in Korea. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11: 320324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Sookrung N, Chaicumpa W, Tungtrongchitr A, Vichyanond P, Bunnag C, 2006. Periplaneta americana arginine kinase as a major cockroach allergen among Thai patients with major cockroach allergies. Environ Health Perspect 114: 875880.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Seiki K, Oda H, Yoshioka H, Sakai H, Urisu A, Akiyama H, Ohno Y, 2007. A reliable and sensitive immunoassay for the determination of crustacean protein in processed foods. J Agric Food Chem 55: 93459350.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Santos ABR, Gutemberg MR, Constance O, Virginia PL, Rodrigo CL, Mario SP, Valeria SF, Rob CA, Martin DC, Arruda LK, 2008. Cross-reactive IgE antibody responses to tropomyosins from Ascaris lumbricoides and cockroach. J Allergy Clin Immunol 121: 10401046.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Walton SF, Holt DC, Currie BJ, Kemp DJ, 2004. Scabies: a new future for neglected scabies. Adv Parasitol 57: 309376.

  • 52.

    Walton SF, Slender A, Pizzutto S, Mounsey K, Oprescu F, Thomas W, Hales B, Currie B, 2015. Analysis of IgE binding patterns to house dust mite allergens in scabies endemic communities: insights for both diseases. Clin Exp Allergy 45: 18681872.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Tsai LC, Chao PL, Shen HD, Tang RB, Chang TC, Chang ZN, Hung MW, Lee BL, Chua KY, 1998. Isolation and characterization of a novel 98-kd Dermatophagoides farinae mite allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 102: 295303.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Jiz M et al.., 2009. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses to paramyosin predicts resistance to reinfestation with Schistosoma japonicum and are attenuated by IgG4. Infect Immun 77: 20512058.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Gu XB, Yang GY, 2008. A study on the genetic relationship of mites in the genus Sarcoptes (Acari: Sarcoptidae) in China. Int J Acarol 32: 183190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Gu X, Xie Y, Wang S, Peng X, Lai S, Yang G, 2014. Immune response induced by candidate Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi DNA vaccine encoding paramyosin in mice. Exp Appl Acarol 63: 401412.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    Beckham S et al.., 2009. Characterization of a serine protease homologous to house dust mite group 3 allergens from the scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei. J Biol Chem 284: 3441334422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Arlian LG, 1988. Host specificity of S. scabiei var. canis (Acari: Sarcoptidae) and the role of host odor. J Med Entomol 25: 5256.

  • 59.

    Arlian LG, Morgan MS, 2000. Serum antibody to Sarcoptes scabiei and house dust mite prior to and during infestation with S. scabiei. Vet Parasitol 90: 315326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Loukas A, Jones MK, King LT, Brindley PJ, McMannus DP, 2001. Receptor for Fc on the surfaces of schistosomes. Infect Immun 69: 36463651.

  • 61.

    Ferreira CA, Barbosa MC, Silveira TC, Valenzuela JG, Da Silva Vaz Jr I, Masuda A, 2002. cDNA cloning, expression and characterization of a Boophilus microplus paramyosin. Parasitol 125: 265274.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    Casais R, Granda V, Balseiro A, Cerro A, Dalton KP, González R, Bravo P, Prieto JM, Maria M, 2016. Vaccination of rabbits with immunodominant antigens from Sarcoptes scabiei induced high levels of humoral responses and pro-inflammatory cytokines but confers limited protection. Parasit Vectors 9: 435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    Rosner B, Spiegelman D, Willett WC, 1990. Correction of logistic regression relative risk estimates and confidence intervals for measurement error: the case of multiple covariates measured with error. Am J Epidemiol 132: 734745.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    Arlian L, Morgan M, Estes S, Walton S, Kemp D, Currie BJ, 2004. Circulating IgE in patients with ordinary and crusted scabies. J Med Entomol 41: 7477.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 
 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Characterization of Sarcoptes scabiei Tropomyosin and Paramyosin: Immunoreactive Allergens in Scabies

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi, Pakistan;
  • | 2 Inflammation and Healing Research Cluster, School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland, Australia

Scabies is a human skin disease due to the burrowing ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis resulting in intense itching and inflammation and manifesting as a skin allergy. Because of insufficient mite material and lack of in vitro propagation system for antigen preparation, scabies is a challenging disease to develop serological diagnostics. For allergen characterization, full-length S. scabiei tropomyosin (Sar s 10) was cloned, expressed in pET-15b, and assessed for reactivity with IgE antibodies from human sera. IgE binding was observed to Sar s 10 with sera collected from subjects with ordinary scabies, house dust mite (HDM)-positive and naive subjects and a diagnostic sensitivity of < 30% was observed. S. scabiei paramyosin (Sar s 11) was cloned, and expressed in pET-28a in three overlapping fragments designated Sspara1, Sspara2, and Sspara3. IgE and IgG binding was observed to Sspara2 and Sspara3 antigens with sera collected from ordinary scabies, and HDM-positive subjects, but no binding was observed with sera collected from naive subjects. Sspara2 displayed excellent diagnostic potential with 98% sensitivity and 90% specificity observed for IgE binding and 70% sensitivity for IgG. In contrast, the diagnostic sensitivity of Sspara3 was 84% for IgE binding and 40% for IgG binding. In combination, Sspara2 and Sspara3 provided an IgE sensitivity of 94%. This study shows that IgE binding to Sspara2 and Sspara3 is a highly sensitive method for diagnosis of scabies infestation in clinical practice. The developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay helps direct future development of a specific diagnostic tool for scabies.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Shelley Walton, Inflammation and Healing Research Cluster, School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland, Australia. E-mail: swalton1@usc.edu.au

Financial support: This work was supported by International Research Support Initiative Program (IRSIP) from Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan to Shumaila Naz.

Authors’ addresses: Shumaila Naz and Farhana Riaz Chaudhry, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, E-mails: naz.pmasaaur@gmail.com and farhana_ahmer@gmail.com. Marion Desclozeaux, Kate E. Mounsey, and Shelley Walton, Inflammation and Healing Research Cluster, School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland, Australia, E-mails: mdesclo@gmail.com, kmounsey@usc.edu.au, and swalton1@usc.edu.au.

Save