Yilmaz N, Visagie CM, Houbraken J, Frisvad JC, Samson RA, 2014. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces. Stud Mycol 78: 175–341.
Chakrabarti A, Slavin MA, 2011. Endemic fungal infections in the Asia-Pacific region. Med Mycol 49: 337–344.
Yoshimura Y, Sakamoto Y, Lee K, Amano Y, Tachikawa N, 2016. Penicillium marneffei infection with beta-D-glucan elevation: a case report and literature review. Intern Med 55: 2503–2506.
Wong SY, Wong KF, 2011. Penicillium marneffei infection in AIDS. Pathol Res Int 2011: 764293.
Supparatpinyo K, Khamwan C, Baosoung V, Nelson KE, Sirisanthana T, 1994. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in southeast Asia. Lancet 344: 110–113.
Wu TC, Chan JW, Ng CK, Tsang DN, Lee MP, Li PC, 2008. Clinical presentations and outcomes of Penicillium marneffei infections: a series from 1994 to 2004. Hong Kong Med J 14: 103–109.
Zheng J, Gui X, Cao Q, Yang R, Yan Y, Deng L, Lio J, 2015. A clinical study of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated Penicillium marneffei infection from a non-endemic area in China. PLoS One 10: e0130376.
Larsson M, Nguyen LH, Wertheim HF, Dao TT, Taylor W, Horby P, Nguyen TV, Nguyen MH, Le T, Nguyen KV, 2012. Clinical characteristics and outcome of Penicillium marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients in northern Vietnam. AIDS Res Ther 9: 24.
Jayaram G, Chew MT, 2000. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lymph nodes in HIV-infected individuals. Acta Cytol 44: 960–966.
Seok H, Ko JH, Shin I, Eun YH, Lee SE, Lee YB, Peck KR, 2015. Disseminated Talaromyces marneffei and Mycobacterium intracellulare coinfection in an HIV-infected patient. Int J Infect Dis 38: 86–88.
Anvikar AR, Gosavi AV, Kulkarni MP, Lanjewar D, 2011. Cytodiagnosis of coexistent cryptococcal and mycobacterial lymphadenitis in a case of AIDS. J Cytol 28: 25–27.
Khawcharoenporn T, Apisarnthanarak A, Sakonlaya D, Mundy LM, Bailey TC, 2006. Dual infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pneumocystis jiroveci lymphadenitis in a patient with HIV infection: case report and review of the literature. AIDS Patient Care STDS 20: 1–5.
Huang YT, Hung CC, Liao CH, Sun HY, Chang SC, Chen YC, 2007. Detection of circulating galactomannan in serum samples for diagnosis of Penicillium marneffei infection and cryptococcosis among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Clin Microbiol 45: 2858–2862.
Chen TC, Lu PL, Lin CY, Lin WR, Chen YH, 2011. Fluoroquinolones are associated with delayed treatment and resistance in tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis 15: e211–e216.
van der Heijden YF, Maruri F, Blackman A, Holt E, Warkentin JV, Shepherd BE, Sterling TR, 2012. Fluoroquinolone exposure prior to tuberculosis diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of death. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 16: 1162–1167.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents, 2016. Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Available at: https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/adultandadolescentgl.pdf. Accessed February 23, 2017.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||500||204||13|
Talaromyces marneffei is a dimorphic fungus endemic mainly in southeast and south Asia. It causes severe mycosis, usually in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Concomitant infection with T. marneffei and other opportunistic pathogens is plausible because the majority of T. marneffei infections occur in patients with advanced HIV infection. Nonetheless, coinfection in the same site has rarely been reported, and poses a considerable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report the case of an HIV-infected Japanese patient who had lived in Thailand for 6 years. The patient developed T. marneffei and Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection, and both pathogens were isolated from the same sites: a blood specimen and a lymph node aspirate. Clinicians should be aware of concomitant infection with T. marneffei and other pathogens in patients with advanced HIV disease who are living in or who have visited endemic areas.
Authors’ addresses: Shuji Hatakeyama, Division of General Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University Hospital, Tochigi, Japan, and Division of Infectious Diseases, Jichi Medical University Hospital, Tochigi, Japan, E-mail: email@example.com. Takeshi Yamashita, Division of General Medicine, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, Saitama, Japan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Toshiyasu Sakai, Division of Clinical Laboratory, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, Saitama, Japan, E-mail: email@example.com. Katsuhiko Kamei, Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.