High Triatoma brasiliensis Densities and Trypanosoma cruzi Prevalence in Domestic and Peridomestic Habitats in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil: The Source for Chagas Disease Outbreaks?

Mauricio Lilioso Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Monitoramento Ambiental (PPGEMA), Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, Brazil.

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Elaine Folly-Ramos Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Monitoramento Ambiental (PPGEMA), Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, Brazil.

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Fabiana Lopes Rocha Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Monitoramento Ambiental (PPGEMA), Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, Brazil.

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Jorge Rabinovich Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (CEPAVE), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina.

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Claire Capdevielle-Dulac UMR Evolution, Génomes, Comportement, Ecologie, CNRS-IRD-Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris Saclay, Paris, France.

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Myriam Harry UMR Evolution, Génomes, Comportement, Ecologie, CNRS-IRD-Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris Saclay, Paris, France.

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Paula L. Marcet Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia.

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Jane Costa Laboratorio de Biodiversidade Entomologica, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Carlos Eduardo Almeida Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Monitoramento Ambiental (PPGEMA), Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, Brazil.
Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil.

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A total of 2,431 Triatoma brasiliensis were collected from 39 populations of Paraíba (PB) and Rio Grande do Norte (RN) states, Brazil. In PB, Trypanosoma cruzi infection was not detected in either peridomestic or domestic vector populations. In contrast, in RN, T. brasiliensis was detected with high parasite prevalence in these ecotopes (30.7–40.0%). Moreover, peridomicile insect population densities were more than double the average densities of all other settings evaluated (19.17 versus < 8.94 triatomine/man-hour). Genotyped parasites evidenced a mix of T. cruzi lineages circulating in both peridomestic and sylvatic populations. Although vector control efforts have dramatically decreased Chagas disease transmission to humans, recent outbreaks have been detected in four municipalities of RN state. Our results clearly evidence a worrisome proximity between infected vectors and humans in RN. Indeed, finding of infected T. brasiliensis inside homes is routinely recorded by local vector control surveillance staff around the outbreak area, challenging the current and conventional view that vector transmissions are controlled in northeastern Brazil. This scenario calls for strengthening vector control surveillance and interventions to prevent further Chagas transmission, especially in RN State.

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Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Carlos Eduardo Almeida, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz - Barão Geraldo, Campinas - SP, Brazil, 13083-970, E-mail: almeida_ce@hotmail.com or Mauricio Lilioso, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Monitoramento Ambiental (PPGEMA), Centro de Ciências Aplicadas e Educação, Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Rua da Mangueira s/n. Centro, Rio Tinto, Paraíba 58297-000, Brazil, E-mail: mauriciolilioso@hotmail.com.
† Co-last authors.

Financial support: Funding was provided by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq process no. 306897/2014-8) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP, process no. 2016/08176-9).

Authors' addresses: Mauricio Lilioso, Elaine Folly-Ramos, and Fabiana Lopes Rocha, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Monitoramento Ambiental (PPGEMA), Centro de Ciências Aplicadas e Educação, Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, Brazil, E-mails: mauriciolilioso@hotmail.com, elafolly@yahoo.com.br, and lopesrocha.fabiana@gmail.com. Jorge Rabinovich, Entomologya, Centro de Estudios Parasitologicos y de Vectores, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina, E-mail: jorge.rabinovich@gmail.com. Claire Capdevielle-Dulac and Myriam Harry, Evolution, Génomes, Comportement, Ecologie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France, E-mails: claire.capdevielle-dulac@egce.cnrs-gif.fr and myriam.harry@u-psud.fr. Paula L. Marcet, Entomology, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: pvm3@cdc.gov. Jane Costa, Laboratorio de Biodiversidade Entomologica, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, E-mail: jcosta@ioc.fiocruz.br. Carlos Eduardo Almeida, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz - Barão Geraldo, Campinas - SP, Brazil, 13083-970, E-mail: almeida_ce@hotmail.com.

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