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Serosurvey of Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Cattle, Mali, West Africa

Ousmane MaigaInternational Center for Excellence in Research, Malaria Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali.

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Miriam Andrada SasInstitute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Isle of Riems–Greifswald, Germany.

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Kyle RosenkeLaboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana.

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Badian KamissokoCentral Veterinary Laboratory, Bamako, Mali.

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Marc MertensInstitute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Isle of Riems–Greifswald, Germany.

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Nafomon SogobaInternational Center for Excellence in Research, Malaria Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali.

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Abdallah TraoreCentral Veterinary Laboratory, Bamako, Mali.

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Modibo SangareFaculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali.

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Mamadou NiangCentral Veterinary Laboratory, Bamako, Mali.

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Tom G. SchwanLaboratory of Zoonotic Pathogens, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana.

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Hamidou Moussa MaigaFaculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali.

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Sekou F. TraoreInternational Center for Excellence in Research, Malaria Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali.

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Heinz FeldmannLaboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana.
Deptartment of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

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David SafronetzDivision of Zoonotic Diseases and Special Pathogens, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Deptartment of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

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Martin H. GroschupInstitute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Isle of Riems–Greifswald, Germany.

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Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus). CCHFV can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with high-case fatality rates in humans. CCHFV has a wide geographic range and has been described in around 30 countries in the Middle East, Asia, Europe, and Africa including Mali and neighboring countries. To date, little is known about the prevalence rates of CCHFV in Mali. Here, using banked bovine serum samples from across the country, we describe the results of a seroepidemiological study for CCHFV aimed at identifying regions of circulation in Mali. In total, 1,074 serum samples were tested by a modified in-house CCHFV-IgG-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with confirmatory testing by commercial ELISA and immunofluorescence assay. Overall, 66% of samples tested were positive for CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies. Regional seroprevalence rates ranged from 15% to 95% and seemed to correlate with cattle density. Our results demonstrate that CCHFV prevalence is high in many regions in Mali and suggest that CCHFV surveillance should be established.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Heinz Feldmann, Laboratory of Virology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840. E-mail: feldmannh@niaid.nih.gov
† These authors contributed equally to this work.

Financial support: This work was supported by the Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, and the International Centers for Excellence in Research, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.

Authors' addresses: Ousmane Maiga, Entomology Unit, International Center of Excellence in Research, University of Science, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali, E-mail: ousmanem@icermali.org. Miriam Andrada Sas, Marc Mertens, and Martin H. Groschup, Institute for Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Isle of Riems–Greifswald, Germany, E-mails: miriam.sas@fli.bund.de, marc.mertens@fli.bund.de, and martin.groschup@fli.bund.de. Kyle Rosenke and Heinz Feldmann, Laboratory of Virology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamitlon, MT, E-mails: rosenkek@niaid.nih.gov and feldmannh@niaid.nih.gov. Badian Kamissoko, Abdallah Traore, and Mamadou Niang, Central Veterinary Laboratory, Bamako, Mali, E-mails: kbadian2001@yahoo.fr, abdalltraor@yahoo.fr, and mniangm@yahoo.fr. Nafomon Sogoba and Hamidou M. Maiga, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali, E-mails: nafomon@icermali.org and maiga_m_hamidou@yahoo.fr. Modibo Sangare, Entomology Unit, International Center for Excellence in Research Mali, Bamako, Mali, E-mail: mouadib@gwmail.gwu.edu. Tom G. Schwan, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, MT, E-mail: tschwan@niaid.nih.gov. Sekou F. Traore, Filariasis Research and Training Unit, International Center of Excellence in Research, Bamako, Mali, E-mail: cheick@icermali.org. David Safronetz, Division of Zoonotic diseases and Special Pathogens, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, E-mail: david.safronetz@phac-aspc.gc.ca.

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