WHO, 1998. Division of Control of Tropical Diseases: Progress Report 1997. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
Hegazy AM, Younis NT, Aminou HA, Badr AM, 2014. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and its impact on nutritional status among preschool children living in Damanhur City, El-Behera Governorate, Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 44: 517–524.
Garcia LS, 2001. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 4th edition. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 1069.
Parija SC, Srinivasa H, 1999. Viewpoint: the neglect of stool microscopy for intestinal parasites and possible solutions. Trop Med Int Health 4: 522–524.
Pullan R, Brooker S, 2008. The health impact of polyparasitism in humans: are we under-estimating the burden of parasitic diseases? Parasitology 135: 783–794.
Steinmann P, Du ZW, Wang LB, Wang XZ, Jiang JY, Li LH, Marti H, Zhou XN, Utzinger J, 2008. Extensive multiparasitism in a village of Yunnan province, People's Republic of China, revealed by a suite of diagnostic methods. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 760–769.
Sudré AP, Macedo HW, Peralta RHS, Peralta JM, 2006. Diagnóstico da estrongiloidíase humana: importância e técnicas. Rev Patol Trop 35: 173–184.
WHO, 1991. Basic Laboratory Methods in Medical Parasitology. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
Katz N, Chaves A, Pellegrino J, 1972. A simple device for quantitative stool thick-smear technique in schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 14: 397–400.
Allen AVH, Ridley DS, 1970. Further observations on the formol-ether concentration technique for faecal parasites. J Clin Pathol 23: 545–546.
Truant AL, Elliott SH, Kelly MT, Smith JH, 1981. Comparison of formalin-ethyl ether sedimentation, formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation, and zinc sulfate floatation techniques for detection of intestinal parasites. J Clin Microbiol 13: 882.
Cringoli G, 2012. Copromicroscopic diagnosis of dicrocoeliosis: what's new? Mappe Parasitologiche 18: 41.
Landis JR, Koch GG, 1977. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics 33: 159–174.
Rayan HZ, Ismail OA, El Gayar EK, 2007. Prevalence and clinical features of Dientamoeba fragilis infections in patients suspected to have intestinal parasitic infection. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 37: 599–608.
Abdel-Hafeez EH, Belal US, Abdellatif MZ, Naoi K, Norose K, 2013. Breast-feeding protects infantile diarrhea caused by intestinal protozoan infections. KJP 51: 519–524.
Bayoumy AM, Mohammed KA, Shahat SA, Ghannam MM, Gazy-Mel S, 2010. Role of parasites among chronic diarrheic patients. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 40: 679–698.
Abed NT, Mohamed NS, Abdel-Gawad ER, Ibrahim SG, 2014. Vitamin D status in children with recurrent acute diarrhea. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 3: 858–868.
Banisch DM, El-Badry A, Klinnert JV, Ignatius R, El-Dib N, 2015. Simultaneous detection of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidia by imunochromatographic assay in stool samples from patients living in the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 31: 1251–1258.
Eldash HH, Bekhit OE, Algameel AA, 2013. Impact of Helicobacter pylori-giardiasis coinfection on children with recurrent abdominal pain. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 43: 509–516.
Hussien SM, Taha MA, Omran EKh, 2015. Relationship between Enterobius vermicularis infection and pelvic inflammatory diseases in children at Sohag Governorate, Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 45: 633–638.
El Sahn AA, Hassan MH, Ftohy EM, Abou-El Ela NE, Eassa SM, 2000. Parasitic infections and maternal awareness of preschool children in Karmouz district, Alexandria. J Egypt Public Health Assoc 75: 1–29.
WHO, 2012. Quality Assurance in Bacteriology and Immunology, SEARO Regional Publication No. 47. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia.
Gelaw A, Anagaw B, Nigussie B, Silesh B, Yirga A, Alem M, Endris M, Gelaw B, 2013. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and risk factors among school-children at the University of Gondar Community School, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 13: 304.
Abate A, Kibret B, Bekalu E, Abera S, Teklu T, Yalew A, Endris M, Worku L, Tekeste A, 2013. Cross-sectional study on the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, northwest Ethiopia. ISRN Parasitology 2013: 1–5.
Oliveira D, Ferreira FS, Atouguia J, Fortes F, Guerra A, Centeno-Lima S, 2015. Infection by intestinal parasites, stunting and anemia in school aged children from southern Angola. PLoS One 10: e0137327.
Chikukwa S, Lukas T, 2015. Prevalence and aetiological agents of parasitic infestation among population in northern Namibia. Int Sci Technol J Namibia 5: 97–103.
El-Sherbini GT, Abosdera MM, 2013. Risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among children. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 43: 287–294.
Pezzani BC, Minvielle MC, de Luca MM, Córdoba MA, Apezteguía MC, Basualdo JA, 2004. Enterobius vermicularis infection among population of General Mansilla, Argentina. World J Gastroenterol 10: 2535–2539.
Acosta M, Cazorla D, Garvett M, 2002. Enterobiasis among school children in a rural population from Estado Falcón, Venezuela, and its relation with socioeconomic level. Invest Clin 43: 173–181.
Buch NA, Ahmad SM, Ahmed SZ, Ali SW, Charoo BA, Hassan MU, 2002. Recurrent abdominal pain in children. Indian Pediatr 39: 830–834.
Younas M, Shah S, Talaat A, 2008. Frequency of Giardia lamblia infection in children with recurrent abdominal pain. J Pak Med Assoc 58: 171–174.
Romero-Cabello R, Godínez-Hana L, Gutiérrez-Quiroz M, 1991. Clinical aspects of hymenolepiasis in pediatrics. Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex 48: 101–105.
Muhsen K, Levine MM, 2012. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between Giardia lamblia and endemic pediatric diarrhea in developing countries. Nephrol Dial Transplant 55 (Suppl 4): S271–S293.
Abdel Hamid MM, Eljack IA, Osman MK, Elaagip AH, Muneer MS, 2015. The prevalence of Hymenolepis nana among preschool children of displacement communities in Khartoum state, Sudan: a cross-sectional study. Travel Med Infect Dis 13: 172–177.
Abrar Ul Haq K, Gul NA, Hammad HM, Bibi Y, Bibi A, Mohsan J, 2015. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan refugee population of Mianwali district, Pakistan. Afr Health Sci 15: 394–400.
Senay H, MacPherson D, 1989. Parasitology: diagnostic yield of stool examination. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal 140: 1329–1331.
Morris AJ, Wilson ML, Reller LB, 1992. Application of rejection criteria for stool ovum and parasite examinations. J Clin Microbiol 30: 3213–3216.
Oguoma VM, Ekwunife CA, 2006. The need for a better method: comparison of direct smear and formol-ether concentration techniques in diagnosing intestinal parasites. Int J Trop Med 3: 1–6.
Assefa LM, Crellen T, Kepha S, Kihara JH, Njenga SM, Pullan RL, Brooker SJ, 2014. Diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of alternative methods for detection of soil-transmitted helminths in a post-treatment setting in western Kenya. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: 2843.
Mergani MH, Mohammed MA, Khan N, Bano M, Khan A, 2014. Detection of intestinal protozoa by using different methods. Dent Med Res 2: 28–32.
Barda BD, Rinaldi L, Ianniello D, Zepherine H, Salvo F, Sadutshang T, Cringoli G, Clementi M, Albonico M, 2013. Mini-FLOTAC, an innovative direct diagnostic technique for intestinal parasitic infections: experience from the field. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2344.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||501||201||3|
The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of intestinal parasitic infection among patients with gastrointestinal tract disorders from the Greater Cairo region, Egypt. In addition, a comparison was made of the accuracy of direct thin and thick smear, formol-ether sedimentation (FEC), centrifugal flotation (CF), and mini-FLOTAC techniques in the diagnosis of infection. Out of 100 patients, the overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 51%. Only 6% had dual infection. Giardia lamblia was the most common parasite (26%), followed by Hymenolepis nana (20%), Entamoeba coli (8%), and Enterobius vermicularis (3%). Except the statistically significant association between E. vermicularis infection and perianal itching and insomnia (P < 0.001), age, gender, and complaints of the examined individuals had no association with prevalence of parasitic infection. Both FEC and CF were equally the most accurate techniques (accuracy = 98.2%, confidence interval [CI] = 0.95–1.0, and κ index = 0.962), whereas the Kato-Katz method was the least accurate (accuracy = 67.5%, CI = 0.57–0.78, and κ index = 0.333). However, mini-FLOTAC-ZnSO4 was the most accurate for diagnosis of helminthic infection, and FEC was more accurate for diagnosis of protozoal infection (accuracy = 100%, CI = 1.0–1.0, and κ index = 1).
Authors' addresses: Atef H. Hussein, Samia M. Rashed, Ibrahim A. El-Hayawan, Nagwa S. M. Aly, Eman A. Abou Ouf, and Amira T. Ali, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com.