Seasonal Variation in Drinking and Domestic Water Sources and Quality in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Emily Kumpel Aquaya Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Search for other papers by Emily Kumpel in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Alicea Cock-Esteb Aquaya Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Search for other papers by Alicea Cock-Esteb in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Michel Duret Water and Sanitation Program, World Bank, Abuja, Nigeria.

Search for other papers by Michel Duret in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Dominick de Waal Water and Sanitation Program, World Bank, London, United Kingdom.

Search for other papers by Dominick de Waal in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Ranjiv Khush Aquaya Institute, Larkspur, California.

Search for other papers by Ranjiv Khush in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

We compared dry and rainy season water sources and their quality in the urban region of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Representative sampling indicated that municipal water supplies represent < 1% of the water sources. Residents rely on privately constructed and maintained boreholes that are supplemented by commercially packaged bottled and sachet drinking water. Contamination by thermotolerant coliforms increased from 21% of drinking water sources in the dry season to 42% of drinking water sources in the rainy season (N = 356 and N = 397). The most significant increase was in sachet water, which showed the lowest frequencies of contamination in the dry season compared with other sources (15%, N = 186) but the highest frequencies during the rainy season (59%, N = 76). Only half as many respondents reported drinking sachet water in the rainy season as in the dry season. Respondents primarily used flush or pour-flush toilets connected to septic tanks (85%, N = 399). The remainder relied on pit latrines and hanging (pier) latrines that drained into surface waters. We found significant associations between fecal contamination in boreholes and the nearby presence of hanging latrines. Sanitary surveys of boreholes showed that more than half were well-constructed, and we did not identify associations between structural or site deficiencies and microbial water quality. The deterioration of drinking water quality during the rainy season is a serious public health risk for both untreated groundwater and commercially packaged water, highlighting a need to address gaps in monitoring and quality control.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Emily Kumpel, Aquaya Institute, P.O. Box 21862, Nairobi 00505, Kenya. E-mail: ekumpel@umass.edu

Financial support: This research was supported by consulting contracts from the Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank (http://www.wsp.org) to The Aquaya Institute. The consulting contracts supported contributions by Emily Kumpel, Alicea Cock-Esteb, and Ranjiv Khush to the study design, data collection, and analysis, and manuscript preparation.

Disclosures: Dominick de Waal and Michel Duret are employees of the Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank, which funded this research. The study results were not subject to any restrictions or qualifications by the World Bank.

Authors' addresses: Emily Kumpel and Alicea Cock-Esteb, Aquaya Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, E-mail: ekumpel@umass.edu and alicea@aquaya.org. Michel Duret, Water and Sanitation Program, World Bank, Abuja, Nigeria, E-mail: mduret@worldbank.org. Dominick de Waal, Water and Sanitation Program, World Bank, London, United Kingdom, E-mails: ddewaal@worldbank.org. Ranjiv Khush, Aquaya Institute, Larkspur, CA, E-mail: ranjiv@aquaya.org.

  • 1.

    Banerjee SG, Morella E, 2011. Africa's Water and Sanitation Infrastructure: Access, Affordability, and Alternatives. Washington, DC: The World Bank. http://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/book/10.1596/978-0-8213-8457-2. Accessed January 22, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    World Bank, 2016. The International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities. Available at: ib-net.org. Accessed March 1, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Howard G, Pedley S, Barrett M, Nalubega M, Johal K, 2003. Risk factors contributing to microbiological contamination of shallow groundwater in Kampala, Uganda. Water Res 37: 34213429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Kulabako NR, Nalubega M, Thunvik R, 2007. Study of the impact of land use and hydrogeological settings on the shallow groundwater quality in a peri-urban area of Kampala, Uganda. Sci Total Environ 381: 180199.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Palamuleni LG, 2002. Effect of sanitation facilities, domestic solid waste disposal and hygiene practices on water quality in Malawi's urban poor areas: a case study of South Lunzu Township in the city of Blantyre. Phys Chem Earth Parts ABC 27: 845850.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Fisher MB, Williams AR, Jalloh MF, Saquee G, Bain RES, Bartram JK, 2015. Microbiological and chemical quality of packaged sachet water and household stored drinking water in Freetown, Sierra Leone. PLoS One 10: e0131772.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Stoler J, Ahmed H, Frimpong LA, Bello M, 2015. Presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in coliform-free sachet drinking water in Ghana. Food Contr 55: 242247.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Stoler J, Tutu RA, Winslow K, 2015. Piped water flows but sachet consumption grows: the paradoxical drinking water landscape of an urban slum in Ashaiman, Ghana. Habitat Int 47: 5260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Williams AR, Bain RE, Fisher MB, Cronk R, Kelly ER, Bartram J, 2015. A systematic review and meta-analysis of fecal contamination and inadequate treatment of packaged water. PLoS One 10: e0140899.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Kumpel E, Albert J, Peletz R, de Waal D, Hirn M, Danilenko A, Uhl V, Daw A, Khush R, 2016. Urban water services in fragile states: an analysis of drinking water sources and quality in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, and Monrovia, Liberia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 95: 229238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Cronin A, Pedley S, Breslin N, Gibson J, 2006. Monitoring source and domestic water quality in parallel with sanitary risk identification in northern Mozambique to prioritise protection interventions. J Water Health 4: 333345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Graham JP, Polizzotto ML, 2013. Pit latrines and their impacts on groundwater quality: a systematic review. Environ Health Perspect 121: 521530.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Hynds PD, Misstear BD, Gill LW, 2012. Development of a microbial contamination susceptibility model for private domestic groundwater sources. Water Resour Res 48: W12504.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Kostyla C, Bain R, Cronk R, Bartram J, 2015. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review. Sci Total Environ 514: 333343.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Levy K, Hubbard AE, Nelson KL, Eisenberg JNS, 2009. Drivers of water quality variability in northern coastal Ecuador. Environ Sci Technol 43: 17881797.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Driscoll FG, 1987. Groundwater and Wells. Saint Paul, MN: Johnson Division.

  • 17.

    Stoler J, Tutu RA, Ahmed H, Frimpong LA, Bello M, 2014. Sachet water quality and brand reputation in two low-income urban communities in Greater Accra, Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 272278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Nwankwoala HO, Walter IO, 2012. Assessment of groundwater quality in shallow coastal aquifers of Okrika Island, Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria. Ife J Sci 14: 297304.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Danert K, Adelike D, Gesti Canuto J, 2014. Manually Drilled Boreholes: Providing Water in Nigeria's Megacity of Lagos and Beyond. St. Gallen, Switzerland: Skat Foundation, UNICEF, and the Rural Water Supply Network.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Shair and Partners, 2012. Port Harcourt Water Supply Project: Investment Plan Brief, Packages 1–5. Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Rivers State Ministry of Water Resources and Rural Development.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    World Health Organization, 1997. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality: Volume 3: Surveillance and Control of Community Supplies, 2nd edition. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Hartler T, Rollins L, 2008. Watersheds, Groundwater and Drinking Water: A Practical Guide. Davis, CA: University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Stoler J, Fink G, Weeks JR, Otoo RA, Ampofo JA, Hill AG, 2012. When urban taps run dry: sachet water consumption and health effects in low income neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana. Health Place 18: 250262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Uko ED, Tamunobereton-Ari I, 2013. Variability of climatic parameters in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. J Emerg Trends Eng Appl Sci 4: 727730.

  • 25.

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2008. Toxicological Profile for Aluminum. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Asia IO, Jegede SI, Jegede DA, Ize-Iyamu OK, Akpasubi EB, 2007. The effects of petroleum exploration and production operations on the heavy metals contents of soil and groundwater in the Niger Delta. Int J Phys Sci 2: 271275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    World Health Organization, 2011. Drinking Water Guidelines, 4th edition. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

  • 28.

    Mushi D, Byamukama D, Kirschner AKT, Mach RL, Brunner K, Farnleitner AH, 2012. Sanitary inspection of wells using risk-of-contamination scoring indicates a high predictive ability for bacterial faecal pollution in the peri-urban tropical lowlands of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Water Health 10: 236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Patrick JM, Murcott S, Punsalan J, 2011. Coupling microbiological testing and sanitary surveys in drinking water quality programs: results from Capiz Province, Philippines. J Water Sanit Hyg Dev 1: 124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 128 128 30
Full Text Views 768 290 1
PDF Downloads 417 80 0
 
Membership Banner
 
 
 
Affiliate Membership Banner
 
 
Research for Health Information Banner
 
 
CLOCKSS
 
 
 
Society Publishers Coalition Banner
Save