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Operational Assessment of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets by Using an Anopheles Salivary Biomarker of Human–Vector Contact

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  • 1 Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou (CREC), Cotonou, Bénin.
  • | 2 UMR IRD 224–CNRS 5290–Universités Montpellier Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle (MIVEGEC), Cotonou, Bénin.
  • | 3 Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut Nationale de la Santé Publique (INSP), Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire.
  • | 4 Programme National de Lutte Contre le Paludisme (PNLP), Ministère de la Santé, Cotonou, Bénin.
  • | 5 Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.
  • | 6 Faculté des Sciences et Techniques (FAST), Université d'Abomey Calavi (UAC), Abomey, Bénin.

Abstract

The widespread implementation of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is a major intervention method for malaria control. Although the LLINs coverage increases, information available on the physical integrity (PI) of implemented LLINs is incomplete. This study aimed to validate human IgG antibody (Ab) response to Anopheles gSG6-P1 salivary peptide antigen, previously demonstrated as a pertinent biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles bites, for evaluating the PI of LLINs in field conditions. We analyzed data from 262 randomly selected children (< 5 years of age) in health districts of Benin. Anti-gSG6-P1 IgG responses were assessed and compared with the PI of LLINs that these same children slept under, and evaluated by the hole index (HI). Specific IgG levels were positively correlated to LLINs HI (r = 0.342; P < 0.0001). According to antipeptide IgG level (i.e., intensity of vector exposure), two categories of LLINs PI were defined: 1) group “HI: [0, 100]” corresponding to LLINs with “good” PI and 2) “HI > 100” corresponding to LLINs with “bad” PI. These results suggest that human Ab response to salivary peptide could be a complementary tool to help defining a standardized threshold of efficacy for LLINs under field use.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Franck Remoue, Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut Nationale de la Santé Publique (INSP), 01 BP 1500, Bouaké 01, Côte d'Ivoire. E-mail: franck.remoue@ird.fr

Financial support: The study was supported by NMCP of Benin (PALP project no. 555 MS/DC/SGM/DNPS/PNLP/PALP/DNMP DU 30/12/2010) and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD).

Authors' addresses: Mahoutin H. Noukpo, Georgia B. Damien, and Emmanuel Elanga-N'Dille, UMR IRD 224–CNRS 5290–Universités Montpellier Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle (MIVEGEC), Cotonou, Bénin, and Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou (CREC), Cotonou, Bénin, E-mails: hnoukpo@yahoo.fr, georgia.damien@ird.fr, and emmsdille@yahoo.fr. André B. Sagna, Papa M. Drame, and Franck Remoue, Institut Pierre Richet (IPR), Institut Nationale de la Santé Publique (INSP), Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire, and UMR IRD 224–CNRS 5290–Universités Montpellier Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle (MIVEGEC), Cotonou, Bénin, E-mails: sagna.ab@gmail.com, papamak2002@yahoo.fr, and franck.remoue@ird.fr. Evelyne Chaffa, Programme National de Lutte Contre le Paludisme (PNLP), Ministère de la Santé, Cotonou, Bénin, E-mail: evechaff2000@yahoo.f. Olayidé Boussari, Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou (CREC), Cotonou, Bénin, E-mail: olayideb@yahoo.fr. Vincent Corbel, Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand, E-mail: vincent.corbel@ird.fr. Martin Akogbéto, Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou (CREC), Cotonou, Bénin, and Faculté des Sciences et Techniques (FAST), Université d'Abomey Calavi (UAC), Abomey, Bénin, E-mail: akogbetom@yahoo.fr.

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