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Burden of Liver Abscess and Survival Risk Score in Thailand: A Population-Based Study

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  • 1 Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
  • | 2 Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
  • | 3 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
  • | 4 Vichaiyut Hospital and Medical Center, Bangkok, Thailand.
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In Thailand, the burden of liver abscess, a life-threatening infectious disease, has not been thoroughly evaluated. We developed a predictive scoring system to estimate survival of patients with liver abscess using information from the 2008–2013 Nationwide Hospital Admission Data to evaluate the burden of liver abscess in Thailand. All patients with primary diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) and amoebic liver abscess (ALA) were included. Epidemiological data, baseline characteristics, hospital course, and survival were analyzed. Overall, 11,296 admissions comprising 8,423 patients from 844 hospitals across Thailand were eligible for analysis. The mean age was 52 ± 17 years and 66.1% of patients were male. ALA was significantly prevalent in southern and western border regions of Thailand, and PLA occurred nationwide. The highest incidence of liver abscess occurred in the rainy season (June–November, P < 0.01). The median length of hospital stay was 8 days (interquartile range = 4–13 days), and mean direct cost of hospitalization was 846 ± 1,574 USD. The overall inhospital mortality rate was 2.8%. Incidence of ALA decreased over the 5-year study period, whereas PLA incidence increased (P < 0.01). Using multivariable Cox regression methods with stepwise variable selection, we developed a final model with five highly significant baseline parameters associated with increased 60-day mortality: older age, PLA, underlying chronic kidney disease, cirrhosis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Range of estimated probability of 60-day survival was 95–16% at cumulative risk score 0–13. This simplified score is practical, and may help clinicians prioritize patients requiring more intensive care.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Kittiyod Poovorawan, Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420/6 Rachavithee Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. E-mail: kittiyod.poo@mahidol.ac.th

Financial support: This work was supported by The Gastroenterological Association of Thailand and Mahidol University, an ICTM Grant of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, and funding from the Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine and Talent Management Fund. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Authors' addresses: Kittiyod Poovorawan, Chatporn Kittitrakul, and Polrat Wilairatana, Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, E-mails: kittiyod.poo@mahidol.ac.th, chatporn.kit@mahidol.ac.th, and polrat.wil@mahidol.ac.th. Wirichada Pan-ngum, Ngamphol Soonthornworasiri, and Chotipa Kulrat, Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, E-mails: wirichada.pan@mahidol.ac.th, ngamphol.soo@mahidol.ac.th, and chotipa.kul@mahidol.ac.th. Sombat Treeprasertsuk, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, E-mail: battan5410@gmail.com. Bubpha Kitsahawong and Kamthorn Phaosawasdi, Department of Medicine, Vichaiyut Hospital and Medical Center, Bangkok, Thailand, E-mails: kbubpha@gmail.com and kamthornphao@yahoo.com.

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