Kelly DJ, Fuerst PA, Ching WM, Richards AL, 2009. Scrub typhus: the geographic distribution of phenotypic and genotypic variants of Orientia tsutsugamushi. Clin Infect Dis 48: S203–S230.
Watt G, Parola P, 2003. Scrub typhus and tropical rickettsioses. Curr Opin Infect Dis 16: 429–436.
Peter JV, Sudarsan TI, Prakash JA, Varghese GM, 2015. Severe scrub typhus infection: clinical features, diagnostic challenges and management. World J Crit Care Med 4: 244–250.
Devine J, 2003. A review of scrub typhus management in 2000–2001 and implications for soldiers. J Rural Remote Environ Health 1: 14–20.
Vikrant S, Dheer SK, Parashar A, Gupta D, Thakur S, Sharma A, Kaushal SS, Kanga A, 2013. Scrub typhus associated acute kidney injury—a study from a tertiary care hospital from western Himalayan State of India. Ren Fail 35: 1338–1343.
Wang CC, Lai YF, Wong SL, 1999. Adult respiratory distress syndrome caused by scrub typhus—a case report. Thorac Med 14: 89–93.
Wang CC, Liu SF, Liu JW, Chung YH, Su MC, Lin MC, 2007. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in scrub typhus. Am J Trop Med 76: 1148–1152.
Sittiwangkul R, Pongprot Y, Silviliarat S, Oberdorfer P, Jittamala P, Sirisanthana V, 2008. Acute fulminant myocarditis in scrub typhus. Ann Trop Paediatr 28: 149–154.
Chung JH, Lim SC, Yun NR, Shin SH, Kim CM, Kim DM, 2012. Scrub typhus hepatitis confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. World J Gastroenterol 18: 5138–5141.
Kar A, Dhanaraj M, Dedeepiya D, Harikrishna K, 2014. Acute encephalitis syndrome following scrub typhus infection. Indian J Crit Care Med 18: 453–455.
Arroliga AC, Ghamra ZW, Perez TA, Perez TP, Komara JJ, Smith A, Wiedemann HP, 2002. Incidence of ARDS in an adult population of northeast Ohio. Chest 121: 1972–1976.
Tsay RW, Chang FY, 2002. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in scrub typhus. Q J Med 95: 126–128.
Tseng CC, Tung HH, Wu SF, Wang TJ, 2012. Acute respiratory distress syndrome following scrub typhus: a case report. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 24: 160–165.
Kim SY, Jang HJ, Kim H, Shin K, Kim MH, Lee K, Kim KU, Park HK, Lee MK, 2014. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by scrub typhus: clinical experiences of eight patients. Korean J Crit Care Med 29: 189–193.
Hemmila MR, Rowe SA, Boules TN, Miskulin J, Mc Gillicuddy JW, Schuerer DJ, Haft JW, Swaniker F, Arbabi S, Hirschl RB, Bartlett RH, 2004. Extracorporeal life support for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults. Ann Surg 240: 595–605.
Dogra S, 2010. Recent advances in understanding pathophysiology of scrub typhus. JK Science 12: 70–71.
Rapmund G, 1984. Rickettsial diseases of the Far East: new perspectives. J Infect Dis 149: 330–338.
Koh GC, Maude RJ, Paris DH, Newton PN, Blacksell SD, 2010. Diagnosis of scrub typhus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 368–370.
Choi YH, Kim SJ, Lee JY, Pai HJ, Lee KY, Lee YS, 2000. Scrub typhus: radiological and clinical findings. Clin Radiol 55: 140–144.
Song SW, Kim KT, Ku YM, Park SH, Kim YS, Lee DG, Yoon SA, Kim YO, 2004. Clinical role of interstitial pneumonia in patients with scrub typhus: a possible marker of disease severity. J Korean Med Sci 19: 668–673.
Park JS, Jee YK, Lee KY, Kim KY, Myong NH, Seo PW, 2000. Acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with scrub typhus: diffuse alveolar damage without pulmonary vasculitis. J Korean Med Sci 15: 343–345.
Tomashefski JF Jr, 2000. Pulmonary pathology of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Clin Chest Med 21: 435–466.
Tseng BY, Yang HH, Liou JH, Chen LK, Hsu YH, 2008. Immunohistochemical study of scrub typhus: a report of two cases. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 24: 92–98.
Angelakis E, Patrick G, Peloni JM, Wey PF, Perreal C, Raoult D, 2015. Orientia tsutsugamushi in lung of patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome, France, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis 21: 373–375.
Berman SJ, Kundin WD, 1973. Scrub typhus in Vietnam: a study of 87 cases. Ann Intern Med 79: 26–30.
Brown GW, Saunders JP, Singh S, Huxsoll DL, Shirai A, 1978. Single dose doxycycline therapy for scrub typhus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 72: 412–416.
Watt G, Chouriyagune C, Ruangweerayud R, Watcharapichat P, Phulsuksombati D, Jongsakul K, Teja-Isavadharm P, Bhodhidatta D, Corcoran KD, Dasch GA, Strickman D, 1996. Scrub typhus infections poorly responsive to antibiotics in northern Thailand. Lancet 348: 86–89.
Varghese GM, Trowbridge P, Janardhanan J, Thomas K, Peter JV, Mathews P, Abraham OC, Kavitha ML, 2014. Clinical profile and improving mortality trend of scrub typhus in south India. Int J Infect Dis 23: 39–43.
Griffith M, Peter JV, Karthik G, Ramakrishna K, Prakash JA, Kalki RC, Varghese GM, Chrispal A, Pichamuthu K, Iyyadurai R, Abraham OC, 2014. Profile of organ dysfunction and predictors of mortality in severe scrub typhus infection requiring intensive care admission. Indian J Crit Care Med 18: 497–502.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||271||103||3|
A 67-year-old woman was diagnosed as having scrub typhus with pneumonitis. On admission, she was started on a combination therapy with levofloxacin and doxycycline. However, the patient developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on the 2nd day, and as a result, she underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). She was weaned from ECMO on the 10th day, as her respiratory status gradually improved. She was discharged without sequelae on the 23rd day. The outcome suggests that the use of ECMO should be considered for patients with ARDS induced from scrub typhus.
Authors' addresses: Woo Young Choi, Seung Yun Lee, Hea Yoon Kwon, Jae Hyoung Im, Areum Durey, Ji Hyeon Baek, Young Sam Kim, and Jin-Soo Lee, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Jae-Seung Kang, Department of Microbiology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.