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Cross-Reactivity Pattern of Asian and American Human Gnathostomiasis in Western Blot Assays Using Crude Antigens Prepared from Gnathostoma spinigerum and Gnathostoma binucleatum Third-Stage Larvae

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  • 1 Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.
  • | 2 University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
  • | 3 Dermatopathology Section, Universidad Central del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
  • | 4 Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
  • | 5 Research Department, Foundation for Marine Coastal Management and Research (FEMM), Guayaquil, Ecuador.
  • | 6 Department of Dermatology, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia.
  • | 7 Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
  • | 8 Research Division, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
  • | 9 Department of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.

Gnathostomiasis is a zoonotic parasitosis endemic in many Asian and some Latin American countries. Most human infections are caused by Gnathostoma spinigerum in Asia and Gnathostoma binucleatum in the Americas, and recently, imported cases have been increasing among travelers returning from endemic regions. Confirmation of the clinical diagnosis relies largely on serologic tests, with a G. spinigerum-antigen-based immunoblot currently being the diagnostic method of choice. However, we repeatedly experienced that sera from patients with clinically suspected American gnathostomiasis gave negative results in this assay. Therefore, we used homologous methods to prepare G. spinigerum- and G. binucleatum-antigen-based immunoblot assays, and evaluated the cross-reactivity of the two assays. The results show incomplete cross-reactivity between the two assays: the G. spinigerum-antigen-based immunoblot apparently only detects Asian gnathostomiasis caused by G. spinigerum, whereas the G. binucleatum-antigen-based immunoblot is apparently capable of detecting American as well as Asian gnathostomiasis.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Andreas Neumayr, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, Basel 4051, Switzerland. E-mail: andreas.neumayr@unibas.ch

Authors' addresses: Andreas Neumayr, Beatrice Nickel, and Hanspeter Marti, Medical Services and Diagnostic, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, E-mails: andreas.neumayr@unibas.ch, beatrice.nickel@unibas.ch, and hanspeter.marti@unibas.ch. Jose Ollague, Dermatopathology Section, Universidad Central del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Ecuador, E-mail: dr_ollague@hotmail.com. Francisco Bravo and Eduardo Gotuzzo, Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru, E-mails: fbravopuccio@gmail.com and eduardo.gotuzzo@upch.pe. Pedro Jimenez, Research Department, Foundation for Marine Coastal Management and Research (FEMM), Guayaquil, Ecuador, E-mail: peterjoe01@yahoo.es. Scott Norton, Department of Dermatology, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, E-mail: scottanorton@gmail.com. Pham Ngoc Doanh, Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam, E-mail: pndoanh@iebr.ac.vn. Yukifumi Nawa, Research Division, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, E-mail: yukinawa@kku.ac.th. Yoichiro Horii, Department of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan, E-mail: horii@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp.

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