An rK28-Based Immunoenzymatic Assay for the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Latin America

Marta Alicia Lauricella Instituto Nacional, de Parasitología “Dr. Mario Fatala Chaben,” ANLIS, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Cristina Graciela Maidana Instituto Nacional, de Parasitología “Dr. Mario Fatala Chaben,” ANLIS, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Victoria Fragueiro Frias Instituto Nacional, de Parasitología “Dr. Mario Fatala Chaben,” ANLIS, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Carlo M. Romagosa Secretaría de Calidad de Vida, Municipalidad de Posadas, Misiones, Argentina.

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Vanesa Negri Instituto Nacional, de Parasitología “Dr. Mario Fatala Chaben,” ANLIS, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Ruben Benedetti Instituto Nacional, de Parasitología “Dr. Mario Fatala Chaben,” ANLIS, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Angel J. Sinagra Instituto Nacional, de Parasitología “Dr. Mario Fatala Chaben,” ANLIS, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Concepcion Luna Instituto Nacional, de Parasitología “Dr. Mario Fatala Chaben,” ANLIS, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Lilian Tartaglino Secretaría de Calidad de Vida, Municipalidad de Posadas, Misiones, Argentina.

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Susana Laucella Instituto Nacional, de Parasitología “Dr. Mario Fatala Chaben,” ANLIS, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Steven G. Reed Infectious Disease Research Institute, Seattle, Washington.

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Adelina R. Riarte Instituto Nacional, de Parasitología “Dr. Mario Fatala Chaben,” ANLIS, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Direct observation of Leishmania parasites in tissue aspirates has shown low sensitivity for the detection of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Therefore in the last quarter century immunoenzymatic tests have been developed to improve diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to develop a fast recombinant K28 antigen, naked-eye qualitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (VL Ql-ELISA) and a quantitative version (VL Qt-ELISA), and to display it in a kit format, whose cutoff value (0.156) was selected as the most adequate one to differentiate reactive from nonreactive samples. Considering 167 cases and 300 controls, sensitivity was 91% for both assays and specificity was 100% and 98.7% in Ql-ELISA and Qt-ELISA, respectively. Positive predictive values were 100% and 97.4% for Ql-ELISA and Qt-ELISA, respectively, and negative predictive values were 95.2% for both ELISAs. Reagent stability, reliability studies, including periodic repetitions and retest of samples, cutoff selection, and comparison of rK28 ELISAs with rK39 immunochromatographic test, were the international criteria that supported the quality in both kits. The performance of both ELISA kits in this work confirmed their validity and emphasized their usefulness for low-to-medium complexity laboratories.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Marta Alicia Lauricella, Instituto Nacional, de Parasitología “Dr. Mario Fatala Chaben,” ANLIS, Avenida Paseo Colón 568, 1063 CABA, Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail: mlauri_2000@yahoo.es

Financial support: This project received support from OPS/OMS (PAHO-2010-05-0016) (SGP0924) and Focanlis (ANLIS) 2009.

Authors' addresses: Marta Alicia Lauricella, Cristina Graciela Maidana, Victoria Fragueiro Frias, Vanesa Negri, Ruben Benedetti, Angel J. Sinagra, Concepcion Luna, Susana Laucella, and Adelina R. Riarte, Instituto Nacional, de Parasitología “Dr. Mario Fatala Chaben,” ANLIS, Buenos Aires, Argentina, E-mails: mlauri_2000@yahoo.es, cgmaidana_1999@yahoo.com, vickyfragueiro@hotmail.com, vanesanegri@hotmail.com, rubenedetti@yahoo.com, ajsinagra@yahoo.com.ar, caluna00@yahoo.com, slaucella@yahoo.com, and ariarte@yahoo.com. Carlo M. Romagosa and Lilian Tartaglino, Secretaría de Calidad de Vida, Municipalidad de Posadas, Misiones, Argentina, E-mails: carlomroma@yahoo.com.ar and lilitartaglino@hotmail.com. Steven G. Reed, Infectious Disease Research Institute, Seattle, WA, E-mail: sreed@idri.org.

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