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Improving Capture of Vaccine History: Case Study from an Evaluation of 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction in Kenya

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  • Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Research and Public Health Collaboration, Kisumu, Kenya; Division of Global Health Protection, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, Kenya; Emory Global Health Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

With the accelerated introduction of new vaccines in low-income settings, understanding immunization program performance is critical. We sought to improve immunization history acquisition from Ministry of Health vaccination cards during a vaccine impact study of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal carriage among young children in Kenya in 2012 and 2013. We captured immunization history in a low proportion of study participants in 2012 using vaccination cards. To overcome this challenge, we implemented a household-based reminder system in 2013 using community health workers (CHWs), and increased the retrieval of vaccine cards from 62% in 2012 to 89% in 2013 (P < 0.001). The home-based reminder system using CHWs is an example of an approach that improved immunization history data quality in a resource-poor setting.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Aaron M. Harris, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE, MS G-37, Atlanta, GA 30329. E-mail: ieo9@cdc.gov† These authors contributed equally to this work.

Financial support: This study was conducted by KEMRI and U.S. CDC with financial support from the Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development.

Authors' addresses: Aaron M. Harris, Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: ieo9@cdc.gov. George Aol, Dominic Ouma, and Godfrey Bigogo, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Research and Public Health Collaboration, Kisumu, Kenya, E-mails: gaol@kemricdc.org, oumadominique@gmail.com, and gbigogo@kemricdc.org. Joel M. Montgomery, Division of Global Health Protection, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: ztq9@cdc.gov. Cynthia G. Whitney and Lindsay Kim, Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mails: cgw3@cdc.gov and iyn2@cdc.gov. Robert F. Breiman, Kenya Medical Research Institute/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, International Emerging Infections Program, Nairobi, Kenya, and Emory Global Health Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: rfbreiman@emory.edu.

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