World Health Organization, 2014. World Malaria Report 2014. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press.
Khan WA, Sack DA, Ahmed S, Prue CS, Alam MS, Haque R, Khyang J, Ram M, Akter J, Nyunt MM, Norris D, Glass G, Shields T, Haq MZ, Cravioto A, Sullivan DJ Jr, 2011. Mapping hypoendemic, seasonal malaria in rural Bandarban, Bangladesh: a prospective surveillance. Malar J 10: 124.
Haque U, Overgaard HJ, Clements ACA, Norris DE, Islam N, Karim J, Roy S, Haque W, Kabir M, Smith DL, Glass GE, 2014. Malaria burden and control in Bangladesh and prospects for elimination: an epidemiological and economic assessment. Lancet Glob Health 2: e98–e105.
National Malaria Control Program, 2015. Malaria National Strategic Plan 2015–2020. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Government of Bangladesh.
Hartl DL, 2004. The origin of malaria: mixed messages from genetic diversity. Nat Rev Microbiol 2: 15–22.
McConkey GA, Waters AP, McCutchan TF, 1990. The generation of genetic diversity in malaria parasites. Annu Rev Microbiol 44: 479–498.
Kiwuwa MS, Ribacke U, Moll K, Byarugaba J, Lundblom K, Farnert A, Fred K, Wahlgren M, 2013. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum infections in mild and severe malaria of children from Kampala, Uganda. Parasitol Res 112: 1691–1700.
Atroosh WM, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Mahdy MA, Saif-Ali R, Al-Mekhlafi AM, Surin J, 2011. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Pahang, Malaysia based on MSP-1 and MSP-2 genes. Parasit Vectors 4: 233.
Gupta P, Singh R, Khan H, Raza A, Yadavendu V, Bhatt RM, Singh V, 2014. Genetic profiling of the Plasmodium falciparum population using antigenic molecular markers. Scientific World Journal 2014: 140867.
Hussain MM, Sohail M, Kumar R, Branch OH, Adak T, Raziuddin M, 2011. Genetic diversity in merozoite surface protein-1 and 2 among Plasmodium falciparum isolates from malarious districts of tribal dominant state of Jharkhand, India. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 105: 579–592.
Mwingira F, Nkwengulila G, Schoepflin S, Sumari D, Beck HP, Snounou G, Felger I, Olliaro P, Mugittu K, 2011. Plasmodium falciparum msp1, msp2 and glurp allele frequency and diversity in sub-Saharan Africa. Malar J 10: 79.
Schoepflin S, Valsangiacomo F, Lin E, Kiniboro B, Mueller I, Felger I, 2009. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum allelic frequency distribution in different endemic settings by high-resolution genotyping. Malar J 8: 250.
Snounou G, Zhu X, Siripoon N, Jarra W, Thaithong S, Brown KN, Viriyakosol S, 1999. Biased distribution of msp1 and msp2 allelic variants in Plasmodium falciparum populations in Thailand. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93: 369–374.
Baruah S, Lourembam SD, Sawian CE, Baruah I, Goswami D, 2009. Temporal and spatial variation in MSP1 clonal composition of Plasmodium falciparum in districts of Assam, northeast India. Infect Genet Evol 9: 853–859.
Congpuong K, Sukaram R, Prompan Y, Dornae A, 2014. Genetic diversity of the msp-1, msp-2, and glurp genes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates along the Thai-Myanmar borders. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 4: 598–602.
Ghanchi NK, Martensson A, Ursing J, Jafri S, Bereczky S, Hussain R, Beg MA, 2010. Genetic diversity among Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Pakistan measured with PCR genotyping of the merozoite surface protein 1 and 2. Malar J 9: 1.
Kang JM, Moon SU, Kim JY, Cho SH, Lin K, Sohn WM, Kim TS, Na BK, 2010. Genetic polymorphism of merozoite surface protein-1 and merozoite surface protein-2 in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Myanmar. Malar J 9: 131.
Pratt-Riccio LR, Perce-da-Silva D de S, Lima-Junior JC, Theisen M, Santos F, Daniel-Ribeiro CT, de Oliveira-Ferreira J, Banic DM, 2003. Genetic polymorphisms in the glutamate-rich protein of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from a malaria-endemic area of Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 108: 523–528.
Akter J, Thriemer K, Khan WA, Sullivan DJ Jr, Noedl H, Haque R, 2012. Genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum using antigenic polymorphic markers and to study anti-malarial drug resistance markers in malaria endemic areas of Bangladesh. Malar J 11: 386.
van den Broek IVF, van der Wardt S, Talukder L, Chakma S, Brockman A, Nair S, Anderson TC, 2004. Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum from the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. Trop Med Int Health 9: 680–687.
Kiwanuka GN, 2009. Genetic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 and 2 coding genes and its implications in malaria epidemiology: a review of published studies from 1997–2007. J Vector Borne Dis 46: 1–12.
Mohon AN, Alam MS, Bayih AG, Folefoc A, Shahinas D, Haque R, Pillai DR, 2014. Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum K13 propeller gene from Bangladesh (2009–2013). Malar J 13: 431.
Snounou G, Singh B, 2002. Nested PCR analysis of Plasmodium parasites. Methods Mol Med 72: 189–203.
Alam MS, Mohon AN, Mustafa S, Khan WA, Islam N, Karim MJ, Khanum H, Sullivan DJ Jr, Haque R, 2011. Real-time PCR assay and rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of clinically suspected malaria patients in Bangladesh. Malar J 10: 175.
Al-abd NM, Mahdy MA, Al-Mekhlafi AM, Snounou G, Abdul-Majid NB, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Fong MY, 2013. The suitability of P. falciparum merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 as genetic markers for in vivo drug trials in Yemen. PLoS One 8: e67853.
Vafa M, Troye-Blomberg M, Anchang J, Garcia A, Migot-Nabias F, 2008. Multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection in asymptomatic children in Senegal: relation to transmission, age and erythrocyte variants. Malar J 7: 17.
Anderson TJ, Haubold B, Williams JT, Estrada-Franco JG, Richardson L, Mollinedo R, Bockarie M, Mokili J, Mharakurwa S, French N, Whitworth J, Velez ID, Brockman AH, Nosten F, Ferreira MU, Day KP, 2000. Microsatellite markers reveal a spectrum of population structures in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biol Evol 17: 1467–1482.
Anthony TG, Conway DJ, Singh JC, Matusop A, Ratnam S, Shamsul S, Singh B, 2005. Fragmented population structure of Plasmodium falciparum in a region of declining endemicity. J Infect Dis 191: 1558–1564.
World Health Organization, 2008. Methods and Techniques for Clinical Trials on Antimalarial Drug Efficacy: Genotyping to Identify Parasite Populations. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||291||95||0|
Despite the recommendation for the use of merozoite surface protein 1 (msp1), merozoite surface protein 2 (msp2), and glutamate-rich protein (glurp) genes as markers in drug efficacy studies by World Health Organization and their limited use in Bangladesh, the circulating Plasmodium falciparum population genetic structure has not yet been assessed in Bangladesh. This study presents a comprehensive report on the circulating P. falciparum population structure based on msp1, msp2, and glurp polymorphic gene markers in Bangladesh. Among the 130 pretreatment (day 0) P. falciparum samples from seven malaria-endemic districts, 14 distinct genotypes were observed for msp1, 20 for msp2, and 13 for glurp. Polyclonal infection was reported in 94.6% (N = 123) of the samples. Multiplicity of infection (MOI) for msp1 was the highest (1.5) among the MOIs of the markers. The heterozygosity for msp1, msp2, and glurp was 0.89, 0.93, and 0.83, respectively. Data according to different malaria-endemic areas are also presented and discussed. Bangladesh is considered as a malaria-hypoendemic country. However, the prevalence of polyclonal infection and the genetic diversity of P. falciparum do not represent hypoendemicity.
Financial support: This study was funded by the SAMS and the Velux Foundation.
Authors' addresses: Mohammad Shafiul Alam, Hasan Mohammad Al-Amin, Mohammad Golam Kibria, Wasif A. Khan, and Rashidul Haque, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Rubayet Elahi, Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, E-mail: email@example.com. Abu Naser Mohon, Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Hamida Khanum, Parasitology Branch, Department of Zoology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh, E-mail: email@example.com.