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To increase maternal health service use and household water treatment (HWT), free water treatment kits were provided at first antenatal care (ANC) visits and free water treatment sachet refills were provided at follow-up ANC visits, delivery, and postnatal visits in 46 health facilities in rural Uganda. We evaluated the impact by surveying 226 women in the initiative (intervention group) and 207 women who received ANC before the initiative began (comparison group). There was no differences in the percentages of intervention and comparison group women with ≥ 4 ANC visits; however, a higher percentage of intervention group women reported treating their drinking water (31.7% versus 19.7%, P = 0.01), and had free chlorine residual in stored water (13.5% versus 3.4%, P = 0.02) than comparison group women. The intervention did not appear to motivate increased maternal health service use, but demonstrated improvements in HWT.
Financial support: The Water for Health initiative received financial support from the United States Agency for International Development and the Procter & Gamble Co. for program implementation and for this evaluation.
Authors' addresses: Almea Matanock, Tara Anderson, Tracy Ayers, Xin Lu, and Robert Quick, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Atlanta, GA, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, TCAnderson1@cdc.gov, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Lilian Likicho, Thomas Emeetai, Celia Kakande, and Miriam Mutabazi, Management Sciences for Health, STRIDES for Family Health, Kampala, Uganda, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Richard Wamimbi, World Vision International, Kampala, Uganda, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.