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The development of good quality and affordable ultrasound machines has led to the establishment and implementation of numerous point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) protocols in various medical disciplines. POCUS for major infectious diseases endemic in tropical regions has received less attention, despite its likely even more pronounced benefit for populations with limited access to imaging infrastructure. Focused assessment with sonography for HIV-associated TB (FASH) and echinococcosis (FASE) are the only two POCUS protocols for tropical infectious diseases, which have been formally investigated and which have been implemented in routine patient care today. This review collates the available evidence for FASH and FASE, and discusses sonographic experiences reported for urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, viral hemorrhagic fevers, amebic liver abscess, and visceral leishmaniasis. Potential POCUS protocols are suggested and technical as well as training aspects in the context of resource-limited settings are reviewed. Using the focused approach for tropical infectious diseases will make ultrasound diagnosis available to patients who would otherwise have very limited or no access to medical imaging.
Authors' addresses: Sabine Bélard, Department of Pediatric Pneumology and Immunology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, E-mail: email@example.com. Francesca Tamarozzi, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Amaya L. Bustinduy, Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, Institute of Infection and Immunity, St. George's University of London, United Kingdom, E-mail: email@example.com. Claudia Wallrauch, Department of Medicine, Klinikum Muenchen-Perlach, Munich, Germany, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Martin P. Grobusch and Tom Heller, Center of Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Division of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, E-mails: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org. Walter Kuhn, Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, E-mail: email@example.com. Enrico Brunetti, Division of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Pavia/IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, Pavia, Italy, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Elizabeth Joekes, Department of Radiology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom, E-mail: email@example.com.