A Review of Melioidosis Cases in the Americas

Tina J. Benoit Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, Brazil; School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia

Search for other papers by Tina J. Benoit in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
David D. Blaney Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, Brazil; School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia

Search for other papers by David D. Blaney in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Thomas J. Doker Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, Brazil; School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia

Search for other papers by Thomas J. Doker in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jay E. Gee Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, Brazil; School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia

Search for other papers by Jay E. Gee in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Mindy G. Elrod Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, Brazil; School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia

Search for other papers by Mindy G. Elrod in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Dionne B. Rolim Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, Brazil; School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia

Search for other papers by Dionne B. Rolim in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Timothy J. J. Inglis Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, Brazil; School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia

Search for other papers by Timothy J. J. Inglis in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Alex R. Hoffmaster Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, Brazil; School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia

Search for other papers by Alex R. Hoffmaster in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
William A. Bower Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, Brazil; School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia

Search for other papers by William A. Bower in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Henry T. Walke Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, Brazil; School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia

Search for other papers by Henry T. Walke in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Melioidosis is a bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram-negative saprophytic bacillus. Cases occur sporadically in the Americas with an increasing number of cases observed among people with no travel history to endemic countries. To better understand the incidence of the disease in the Americas, we reviewed the literature, including unpublished cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Of 120 identified human cases, occurring between 1947 and June 2015, 95 cases (79%) were likely acquired in the Americas; the mortality rate was 39%. Burkholderia pseudomallei appears to be widespread in South, Central, and North America.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to David D. Blaney, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329. E-mail: dblaney@cdc.gov

Authors' addresses: Tina J. Benoit, David D. Blaney, Jay E. Gee, Mindy G. Elrod, Alex R. Hoffmaster, William A. Bower, and Henry T. Walke, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mails: josanabenoit@hotmail.com, dblaney@cdc.gov, xzg4@cdc.gov, mglass@cdc.gov, ahoffmaster@cdc.gov, wbower@cdc.gov, and hwalke@cdc.gov. Thomas J. Doker, Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: thomas.doker@gmail.com. Dionne B. Rolim, Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, Brazil, E-mail: dionnerolim@gmail.com. Timothy J. J. Inglis, School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia, E-mail: tim.inglis@uwa.edu.au.

  • 1.

    White NJ, 2003. Melioidosis. Lancet 361: 17151722.

  • 2.

    Wiersinga WJ, Currie BJ, Peacock SJ, 2012. Melioidosis. N Engl J Med 367: 10351044.

  • 3.

    Cheng AC, Currie BJ, 2005. Melioidosis: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. Clin Microbiol Rev 18: 383416.

  • 4.

    Limmathurotsakul D, Wongsuvan G, Aanensen D, Ngamwilai S, Saiprom N, Rongkard P, Thaipadungpanit J, Kanoksil M, Chantratita N, Day NPJ, Peacock S, 2014. Melioidosis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei in drinking water, Thailand, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis 20: 265268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Limmathurotsakul D, Kanoksil M, Wuthiekanun V, Kitphati R, de Stavola B, Day NPJ, Peacock S, 2013. Activities of daily living associated with acquisition of melioidosis in northeast Thailand: a matched case-control study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2072.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Schlech WF, Turchik JB, Westlake RE, Klein GC, Band JD, Weaver RE, 1981. Laboratory-acquired infection with Pseudomonas pseudomallei (melioidosis). N Engl J Med 305: 11331135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Green RN, Tuffnell PG, 1968. Laboratory acquired melioidosis. Am J Med 44: 599605.

  • 8.

    Peacock SJ, Schweizer HP, Dance DA, Smith TL, Gee JE, Wuthiekanun V, DeShazer D, Steinmetz I, Tan P, Currie BJ, 2008. Management of accidental laboratory exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei. Emerg Infect Dis 14: e2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    2014. Federal Select Agent Program. Available at: http://www.selectagents.gov/. Accessed May 18, 2015.

  • 10.

    Adams DA, Jajosky RA, Ajani U, Kriseman J, Sharp P, Onweh DH, Schley AW, Anderson WJ, Grigoryan A, Aranas AE, Wodajo MS, Abellera JP, 2012. Summary of notifiable diseases—United States. MMWR 61: 1121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, 2011. National Surveillance Definition for Melioidosis. Available at: http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.cste.org/resource/resmgr/PS/11-ID-16rev.pdf. Accessed May 18, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Retnasabapathy A, Joseph PG, 1966. A case of melioidosis in a macaque monkey. Vet Rec 79: 7273.

  • 13.

    Kaufmann AF, Alexander AD, Allen MA, Cronin RJ, Dillingham LA, Douglas JD, Moore TD, 1970. Melioidosis in imported non-human primates. J Wildl Dis 6: 211219.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Fritz PE, Miller JG, Slayter M, Smith TJ, 1986. Naturally occurring melioidosis in a colonized rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Lab Anim 20: 281285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Dance DA, King C, Aucken H, Knott CD, West PG, Pitt TL, 1992. An outbreak of melioidosis in imported primates in Britain. Vet Rec 130: 525529.

  • 16.

    Sprague LD, Neubauer H, 2004. Melioidosis in animals: a review on epizootiology, diagnosis and clinical presentation. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 51: 305320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Limmathurotsakul D, Thammasart S, Warrasuth N, Thapanagulsak P, Jatapai A, Pengreugrojanachai V, Anun S, Joraka W, Thongkamkoon P, Saiyen P, Wongratanacheevin S, Day NPJ, Peacock S, 2012. Melioidosis in animals, Thailand, 2006–2010. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 325327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Choy JL, Mayo M, Janmaat A, Currie BJ, 2000. Animal melioidosis in Australia. Acta Trop 74: 153158.

  • 19.

    Sutmoller P, Kraneveld FC, Van Der Schaaf A, 1957. Melioidosis (Pseudomalleus) in sheep, goats, and pigs on Aruba (Netherland Antilles). J Am Vet Med Assoc 130: 415417.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Lloyd JM, Suijdendorp P, Soutar WR, 1988. Melioidosis in a dog. Aust Vet J 65: 191192.

  • 21.

    McCormick JB, Sexton DJ, McMurray JG, Carey E, Hayes P, Feldman RA, 1975. Human-to-human transmission of Pseudomonas pseudomallei. Ann Intern Med 83: 512513.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Galimand M, Dodin A, 1982. Le point sur la mélioïdose dans le monde. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 75: 375383.

  • 23.

    Rolim DB, Vilar DC, Sousa AQ, Miralles IS, de Oliveira DC, Harnett G, O'Reilly L, Howard K, Sampson I, Inglis TJJ, 2005. Melioidosis, northeastern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 14581460.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Rolim DB, Rocha MF, Brilhante RS, Cordeiro RA, Leitão NP Jr, Inglis TJ, Sidrim JJ, 2009. Environmental isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Ceara State, northeastern Brazil. Appl Environ Microbiol 75: 12151218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Tomaso H, Pitt TL, Landt O, Al Dahouk S, Scholz HC, Reisinger EC, Sprague LD, Rathmann I, Neubauer H, 2005. Rapid presumptive identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei with real-time PCR assays using fluorescent hybridization probes. Mol Cell Probes 19: 920.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Doker TJ, Sharp TM, Rivera-Garcia B, Perez-Padilla J, Benoit TJ, Ellis EM, Elrod MG, Gee JE, Shieh WJ, Beesley CA, Ryff KR, Traxler RM, Galloway RL, Haberling DL, Waller LA, Shadomy SV, Bower WA, Hoffmaster AR, Walke HT, Blaney DD, 2015. Contact investigation of melioidosis cases reveals regional endemicity in Puerto Rico. Clin Infect Dis 60: 243250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Silva SL, Macedo OG, Damasceno CA, Carvalho MA, Cisalpino EO, 1991. Bacteriological evaluation of wounds in seriously burned hospitalized patients. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 24: 163168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Inglis TJ, Rolim DB, Sousa AQ, 2006. Melioidosis in the Americas. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 947954.

  • 29.

    Glass MB, Steigerwalt AG, Jordan JG, Wilkins PP, Gee JE, 2006. Burkholderia oklahomensis sp. nov., a Burkholderia pseudomallei-like species formerly known as the Oklahoma strain of Pseudomonas pseudomallei. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56: 21712176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Dance DA, 1991. Melioidosis: the tip of the iceberg? Clin Microbiol Rev 4: 5260.

  • 31.

    Diamond HS, Pastore R, 1967. Septic arthritis due to Pseudomonas pseudomallei. Arthritis Rheum 10: 459466.

  • 32.

    Central Intelligence Agency, 2014. The World Factbook. Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html. Accessed December 3, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Zehnder AM, Hawkins MG, Koski MA, Lifland B, Byrne BA, Swanson AA, Rood MP, Gee JE, Elrod MG, Beesley CA, Blaney DD, Ventura J, Hoffmaster AR, Beeler ES, 2014. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates in 2 pet iguanas, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis 20: 304306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Osteraas GR, Hardman JM, Bass JW, Wilson C, 1971. Neonatal melioidosis. Am J Dis Child 122: 446448.

  • 35.

    Garry MW, Koch ML, 1951. Chronic melioidosis: bacteriologic and clinical correlation in diagnosis. J Lab Clin Med 38: 374383.

  • 36.

    Stewart T, Engelthaler DM, Blaney DD, Tuanyok A, Wangsness E, Smith TL, Pearson T, Komatsu KK, Keim P, Currie BJ, Levy C, Sunenshine R, 2011. Epidemiology and investigation of melioidosis, southern Arizona. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 12861288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Doker TJ, Quinn CL, Salehi ED, Sherwood JJ, Benoit TJ, Glass Elrod M, Gee JE, Shadomy SV, Bower WA, Hoffmaster AR, Walke HT, Blaney DD, DiOrio MS; Melioidosis Investigation Team, 2014. Fatal Burkholderia pseudomallei infection initially reported by Bacillus species, Ohio. Am J Trop Med Hyg 91: 743746.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Beamer PR, Varney PL, 1948. Melioidosis; report of second case from the Western Hemisphere, with bacteriologic studies on both cases. Am J Pathol 24: 717.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Olive C, Loetitia G, Desbois N, Roche B, Jouannelle J, Dodin A, 1995. Forme septicopyohemique de melioidose humanie: un premier cas aux Antilles Francaises. Presse Med 24: 1270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Gétaz L, Abbas M, Loutan L, Schrenzel J, Iten A, Simon F, Decosterd A, Studer R, Sudre P, Michel Y, Merlani P, Emonet S, 2011. Fatal acute melioidosis in a tourist returning from Martinique Island, November 2010. Euro Surveill 16: pii 19758.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Brilhante RS, Bandeira TJ, Cordeiro RA, Grangeiro TB, Lima RA, Ribeiro JF, Castelo-Branco DS, Rodrigues JL, Coelho IC, Magalhães FG, Rocha MF, Sidrim JJ, 2012. Clinical-epidemiological features of 13 cases of melioidosis in Brazil. J Clin Microbiol 50: 33493352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Miralles IS, Maciel MC, Angelo MR, Gondini MM, Frota LH, dos Reis CM, Hofer E, 2004. Burkholderia pseudomallei: a case report of a human infection in Ceará, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 46: 5154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Liguori AP, Warrington SD, Ginther JL, Pearson T, Bowers J, Glass MB, Mayo M, Wuthiekanun V, Engelthaler D, Peacock SJ, Currie BJ, Wagner DM, Keim P, Tuanyok A, 2011. Diversity of 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) reveals phylogenetic relationships in Burkholderia pseudomallei and its near-neighbors. PLoS One 6: e29323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Gee JE, Allender CJ, Tuanyok A, Elrod MG, Hoffmaster AR, 2014. Burkholderia pseudomallei type G in Western Hemisphere. Emerg Infect Dis 20: 682684.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Benoit TJ, Blaney DD, Gee JE, Elrod MG, Hoffmaster AR, Doker TJ, Bower WA, Walke HT, 2015. Melioidosis cases and selected reports of occupational exposures to Burkholderia pseudomallei—United States, 2008–2013. MMWR 64: 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Hoffmaster AR, AuCoin D, Baccam P, Baggett HC, Baird R, Bhengsri S, Blaney DD, Brett PJ, Brooks TJ, Brown KA, Chantratita N, Cheng AC, Dance DA, Decuypere S, Defenbaugh D, Gee JE, Houghton R, Jorakate P, Lertmemongkolchai G, Limmathurotsakul D, Merlin TL, Mukhopadhyay C, Norton R, Peacock SJ, Rolim DB, Simpson AJ, Steinmetz I, Stoddard RA, Stokes MM, Sue D, Tuanyok A, Whistler T, Wuthiekanun V, Walke HT, 2015. Melioidosis diagnostic workshop, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis 21: 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 118 118 12
Full Text Views 548 150 4
PDF Downloads 299 66 3
 
Membership Banner
 
 
 
Affiliate Membership Banner
 
 
Research for Health Information Banner
 
 
CLOCKSS
 
 
 
Society Publishers Coalition Banner
Save