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Rapid Tests and the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Coinfection

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  • Department of Parasitology, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Pernambuco, Brazil; Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Pernambuco, Brazil; Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Pernambuco, Pernambuco, Brazil; Department of Immunology, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Pernambuco, Brazil; Department of Veterinary Medicine, Universitá degli Studi di Bari, Bari, Italy

After the emergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)–HIV/AIDS coinfections has increased worldwide. Herein, we assessed the usefulness of an rK39-based immunochromatographic test (rK39 ICT) (DiaMed-IT LEISH®; DiaMed AG, Cressier-sur-Morat, Switzerland) and a latex agglutination test (KAtex; Kalon Biological, Guildford, United Kingdom) for urinary antigen detection to diagnose VL in 15 HIV/AIDS patients from northeastern Brazil. VL diagnosis was based on clinical findings, cytology, serology, parasite DNA, and/or urinary antigen detection. VL was confirmed in seven out of 15 HIV/AIDS patients. Only three patients were positive in bone marrow cytology, three patients were conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive, while six were real-time PCR positive. All patients were direct agglutination test (DAT) (Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) positive; of these, four were positive by rK39 ICT and five by KAtex. Large-scale studies are needed to validate the use of the KAtex in the national public health laboratory network in Brazil, aiming at improving the diagnosis of VL in HIV/AIDS patients in this country.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Walter Lins Barbosa Júnior, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Avenue Professor Moraes Rego s/n, 50740465 Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. E-mail: walterb716@gmail.com

Financial support: This work was supported by CNPq (process no. 4822182011-8), FACEPE (PIBIC: BIC-0564-4.06/12, BIC-0487-2.13/13, and IBPG: PBPG-1311-2.13/13).

Authors' addresses: Walter Lins Barbosa Júnior, Paulo Sérgio Ramos de Araújo, Luiz Dias de Andrade, Ana Maria Aguiar dos Santos, Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva, Filipe Dantas-Torres, and Zulma Medeiros, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Pernambuco, Brazil, E-mails: walterb716@gmail.com, psergio@cpqam.fiocruz.br, dias@cpqam.fiocruz.br, amas@cpqam.fiocruz.br, almerice_lopes@yahoo.com.br, filipe.dantas@cpqam.fiocruz.br, and medeiros@cpqam.fiocruz.br.

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