• 1.

    Lewis RJ, 2006. Ciguatera: Australian perspectives on a global problem. Toxicon 48: 799809.

  • 2.

    FAO, 2004. Ciguatera fish poisoning. Marine Biotoxins. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 80. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 185218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Litaker RW, Vandersea MW, Faust MA, Kibler SR, Nau AW, Holland WC, Chinain M, Holmes MJ, Tester PA, 2010. Global distribution of ciguatera causing dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus. Toxicon 56: 711730.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Skinner MP, Brewer TD, Johnstone R, Fleming LE, Lewis RJ, 2011. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific Islands (1998 to 2008). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1416.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Gillespie NC, Lewis RJ, Pearn JH, Bourke AT, Holmes MJ, Bourke JB, Shields WJ, 1986. Ciguatera in Australia. Occurrence, clinical features, pathophysiology and management. Med J Aust 145: 584590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Toda M, Uneyama C, Toyofuku H, Morikawa K, 2012. Trends of food poisonings caused by natural toxins in Japan, 1989–2011. Food Hyg Saf Sci. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 53: 105120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Chan TYK, 2014. Epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. Toxins (Basel) 6: 29892997.

  • 8.

    Chan TYK, 2015. Emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the the coastal cities of southern China. Mar Drugs 13: 11751184.

  • 9.

    Chan TYK, 2015. Ciguatera fish poisoning in east Asia and southeast Asia. Mar Drugs 13: 34663478.

  • 10.

    Chan TYK, 2013. Ciguatera caused by consumption of humphead wrasse. Toxicon 76: 255259.

  • 11.

    Chan TYK, 2014. Large outbreaks of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper. Toxins (Basel) 6: 20412049.

  • 12.

    Anonymous, 2014. Length-Weight Parameters for Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. Available at: http://www.fishbase.org/PopDyn/LWRelationshipList.php?ID=4460&GenusName=Epinephelus&SpeciesName=fuscoguttatus&fc=289. Accessed May 25, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Department of Health. Health alert on consumption of big tiger grouper. Available online: http://www.dh.gov.hk/english/press/1998/14_05_98.html. Accessed May 25, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Centre for Food Safety, 2010. Food Safety Focus (Hong Kong), 51st Issue. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning. Available at: http://www.cfs.gov.hk/english/multimedia/multimedia_pub/files/FSF51_2010-10-20.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Luo HD, Bai YY, Zhou N, 2011. Study of three ciguatera fish poisoning cases in Xiamen city in 2005. Chin J Prev Med 45: 512515.

  • 16.

    Wen YM, Wu GJ, 2007. Clinical analysis of ciguatera poisoning. China Prac Med 2: 7475.

  • 17.

    Hong YF, Liu HB, Hu HS, Tian ZH, 1998. Case reports of poisoning caused by eating sea fish together. Guangdong J Health Epidemic Prev 24: 4849.

  • 18.

    Chen SZ, 2005. First aid and nursing for 64 patients with colony ciguatera toxins poisoning. Mod Hosp 5: 7879.

  • 19.

    Liao QG, Sui MS, Chen JP, 2005. Outbreak of ciguatoxin poisoning in 59 patients. Chin J Emerg Med 14: 663666.

  • 20.

    Mo BX, Su YN, Yang JL, 2010. Cardioprotective effect on shenmai injection on ciguatera poisoning. J Med Theor Prac 23: 806807.

  • 21.

    Zhong WJ, Wu GF, 2006. Ciguatera poisoning in patients with clinical manifestations of cardiovascular system. New Chin Med 37: 316317.

  • 22.

    Hu YM, Chen WQ, Guan QX, Li X, 2005. Clinical analysis of 132 cases of ciguatera poisoning. Chin J Intern Med 44: 778779.

  • 23.

    Liu ZX, Wei HC, Lin Z, Zhang XB, Song ZB, Wu YX, Meng JY, Tan XH, 2006. Clinical analysis of a collective ciguatoxin poisoning accident in a banquet. China Trop Med 6: 16891691.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Stewart I, Lewis RJ, Eaglesham GK, Graham GC, Poole S, Craig SB, 2010. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 2. Ciguatera fish poisoning. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 104: 557571.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Stewart I, Eaglesham GK, Poole S, Graham G, Paulo C, Wickramasinghe W, Sadler R, Shaw GR, 2010. Establishing a public health analytical service based on chemical methods for detecting and quantifying Pacific ciguatoxin in fish samples. Toxicon 56: 804812.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Oshiro N, Sakugawa S, 2009. Food poisoning and consumer complaint cases caused by chemicals and natural toxins in Okinawa – FY2008. Okinawa Inst Environ Health 43: 181184.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Yogi K, Oshiro N, Inafuku Y, Hirama M, Yasumoto T, 2011. Detailed LC-MS/MS analysis of ciguatoxins revealing distinct regional and species characteristics in fish and causative alga from the Pacific. Anal Chem 83: 88868891.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Yogi K, Sakugawa S, Oshiro N, Ikehara T, Sugiyama K, Yasumoto T, 2014. Determination of toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific by LC/MS. J AOAC Int 97: 398402.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Oshiro N, Yogi K, Asato S, Sasaki T, Tamanaha K, Hirama M, Yasumoto T, Inafuku Y, 2010. Ciguatera incidence and fish toxicity in Okinawa, Japan. Toxicon 56: 656661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Chan WH, Mak YL, Wu JJ, Jin L, Sit WH, Lam JC, Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Chan LL, Lam PK, Murphy MB, 2011. Spatial distribution of ciguateric fish in the Republic of Kiribati. Chemosphere 84: 117123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Wu JJ, Mak YL, Murphy MB, Lam JCW, Chan WH, Wang M, Chan LL, Lam PKS, 2011. Validation of an accelerated solvent extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for Pacific ciguatoxin-1 in fish flesh and comparison with the mouse neuroblastoma assay. Anal Bioanal Chem 400: 31653175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Mak YL, Wai TC, Murphy MB, Chan WH, Wu JJ, Lam JCW, Chan LL, Lam PKS, 2013. Pacific ciguatoxins in food web components of coral reef systems in the Republic of Kiribati. Environ Sci Technol 47: 1407014079.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Clua E, Brena PF, Lecasble C, Ghnassia R, Chauvet C, 2011. Prevalence and proposal for cost-effective management of the ciguatera risk in the Noumea fish market, New Caledonia (South Pacific). Toxicon 58: 591601.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland Government, 2014. Size, Take and Possession Limits for Tidal Waters. Available at: https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/fisheries/recreational/rules-regulations/size-possession-limits-tidal. Accessed May 25, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Sydney Fish Market Pty Ltd, 2005. Schedule of Ciguatera High-Risk Areas and Species Size Limits. Available at: http://www.sydneyfishmarket.com.au/Portals/0/Ciguatera_Schedule.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Pears R, 2002. Flowery by name: ferocious by nature. Fish Newsl 1: 3.

  • 37.

    Awira R, Friedman K, Sauni S, Kronen M, Pinca S, Chapman L, Magron F, 2008. Kiribati Country Report: Profiles and Results from Survey Work at Abaiang, Abemama, Kuria and Kiritimati (May to November 2004). Noumea, New Caledonia: Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Coastal Fisheries Programme.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    McGilvraya F, Chan TTC, 2002. The trade in live reef food fish: A Hong Kong perspective. Aguaculture Asia 7: 2126.

  • 39.

    Laurent D, Yeeting B, Labrosse P, Gaudechoux JP, 2005. Ciguatera: Field Reference Guide Noumea, New Caledonia: Secretariat of the Pacific Community and Institute of Research for Development.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Letourneur Y, Kulbicki M, Labrosse P, 1998. Length-weight relationship of fishes from coral reefs and lagoons of New Caledonia: an update. Naga ICLARM Q 21: 3946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Sadovy Y, 1998. Marketing and monitoring live reef fishes in Hong Kong, an update. SPC Live Reef Fish Inform Bull 4: 4751.

  • 42.

    Withers NW, 1982. Ciguatera fish poisoning. Annu Rev Med 33: 97111.

  • 43.

    Hashimoto Y, Yasamoto T, 1965. A note on ciguatera poisoning in Okinawa and the toxin of a grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Forskal. Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish 31: 452458.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Shakeel H, Ahmed H, 1997. Exploitation of reef resources, grouper and other food fishes in the Maldives. SPC Live Reef Fish Inform Bull 2: 1420.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    European Food Safety Authority, 2010. Scientific opinion on marine biotoxins in shellfish – emerging toxins: ciguatoxin group. EFSA J 8: 1627.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Centre for Food Safety, 2012. Food Safety Ordinance (Chapter 612). Available at: http://www.cfs.gov.hk/english/whatsnew/whatsnew_fstr/whatsnew_fstr_Food_Safety_Bill.html. Accessed May 25, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin

View More View Less
  • Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Drug and Poisons Information Bureau, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China; Centre for Food and Drug Safety, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating E. fuscoguttatus varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for E. fuscoguttatus to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Thomas Y. K. Chan, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China. E-mail: tykchan@cuhk.edu.hk

Financial support: This work is supported by research funding from the Centre for Food and Drug Safety, Faculty of Medicine, the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Author's address: Thomas Y. K. Chan, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China, E-mail: tykchan@cuhk.edu.hk.

Save