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The genus Nairovirus of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses includes the important emerging human pathogen, Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), as well as Nairobi sheep disease virus and many other poorly described viruses isolated from mammals, birds, and ticks. Here, we report genome sequence analysis of six nairoviruses: Thiafora virus (TFAV) that was isolated from a shrew in Senegal; Yogue (YOGV), Kasokero (KKOV), and Gossas (GOSV) viruses isolated from bats in Senegal and Uganda; Issyk-Kul virus (IKV) isolated from bats in Kyrgyzstan; and Keterah virus (KTRV) isolated from ticks infesting a bat in Malaysia. The S, M, and L genome segments of each virus were found to encode proteins corresponding to the nucleoprotein, polyglycoprotein, and polymerase protein of CCHFV. However, as observed in Leopards Hill virus (LPHV) and Erve virus (ERVV), polyglycoproteins encoded in the M segment lack sequences encoding the double-membrane-spanning CCHFV NSm protein. Amino acid sequence identities, complement-fixation tests, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses cluster into three groups comprising KKOV, YOGV, and LPHV from bats of the suborder Yingochiroptera; KTRV, IKV, and GOSV from bats of the suborder Yangochiroptera; and TFAV and ERVV from shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae). This reflects clade-specific host and vector associations that extend across the genus.
Financial support: This work was supported in part by NIH contract HHSN272201000040I/HHSN2700004/D4 (Nikos Vasilakis and Robert B. Tesh).
Disclosure: Animal use in this work was done under protocol no. 9505045, approved by the IACUC at the University of Texas Medical Branch.
Authors' addresses: Peter J. Walker, Cadhla Firth, and Kim R. Blasdell, CSIRO Biosecurity, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria, Australia, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Steven G. Widen, Thomas G. Wood, and Robert B. Tesh, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Amelia P. A. Travassos da Rosa and Hilda Guzman, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Nikos Vasilakis, Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.