Long-Lasting Permethrin-Impregnated Clothing Protects Against Mosquito Bites in Outdoor Workers

Berlin Londono-Renteria Department of Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina; Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana; Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina; Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

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Jaymin C. Patel Department of Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina; Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana; Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina; Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

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Meagan Vaughn Department of Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina; Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana; Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina; Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

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Sheana Funkhauser Department of Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina; Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana; Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina; Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

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Loganathan Ponnusamy Department of Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina; Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana; Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina; Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

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Crystal Grippin Department of Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina; Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana; Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina; Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

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Sam B. Jameson Department of Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina; Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana; Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina; Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

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Charles Apperson Department of Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina; Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana; Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina; Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

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Christopher N. Mores Department of Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina; Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana; Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina; Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

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Dawn M. Wesson Department of Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina; Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana; Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina; Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

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Tonya M. Colpitts Department of Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina; Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana; Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina; Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

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Steven R. Meshnick Department of Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina; Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana; Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina; Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

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Outdoor exposure to mosquitoes is a risk factor for many diseases, including malaria and dengue. We have previously shown that long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing protects against tick and chigger bites in a double-blind randomized controlled trial in North Carolina outdoor workers. Here, we evaluated whether this clothing is protective against mosquito bites by measuring changes in antibody titers to mosquito salivary gland extracts. On average, there was a 10-fold increase in titer during the spring and summer when mosquito exposure was likely to be the highest. During the first year of the study, the increase in titer in subjects wearing treated uniforms was 2- to 2.5-fold lower than that of control subjects. This finding suggests that long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing provided protection against mosquito bites.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Berlin Londono-Renteria, Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, 6439 Garners Ferry Rd, Bldg 2, Columbia, SC 29209. E-mail: berlinlondo@yahoo.com

Financial support: This work was generously supported by NIOSH grant 5R01OH009874-03 and NIH NIAID grant 1K22AI103067-01.

Authors' addresses: Berlin Londono-Renteria and Tonya M. Colpitts, Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, E-mails: berlinlondo@yahoo.com and tcolpitt@tulane.edu. Crystal Grippin, Sam B. Jameson, and Dawn M. Wesson, Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, E-mails: cgrippin@tulane.edu, sbishop@tulane.edu, and wesson@tulane.edu. Jaymin Patel, Meagan Vaughn, and Steven R. Meshnick, Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, E-mails: jaymin86@email.unc.edu, vaughn.meagan@gmail.com, and meshnick@unc.edu. Sheana Funkhauser, Loganathan Ponnusamy, and Charles Apperson, Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, E-mails: sheana@nc.rr.com, loganathan_ponnusamy@ncsu.edu, and apperson@ncsu.edu. Christopher N. Mores, Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, E-mail: cmores@lsu.edu.

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