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West Nile Virus Encephalitis: The First Human Case Recorded in Brazil

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  • Natan Portella Institute of Tropical Medicine, Piauí, Brazil; Ministry of Health, Brasília, Brazil; Municipal Health Department, Teresina, Brazil; Evandro Chagas Institute, Ananindeua, Brazil

A Brazilian ranch worker with encephalitis and flaccid paralysis was evaluated in the regional Acute Encephalitis Syndromic Surveillance Program. This was the first Brazilian patient who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmation criteria for West Nile virus disease. Owing to the overlapping of neurological manifestations attributable to several viral infections of the central nervous system, this report exemplifies the importance of human acute encephalitis surveillance. The syndromic approach to human encephalitis cases may enable early detection of the introduction of unusual virus or endemic occurrence of potentially alarming diseases within a region.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Marcelo A. C. S. Vieira, Rua Governador Artur de Vasconcelos, 151, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil 64001-450. E-mail: macsvieira@superig.com.br

Authors' addresses: Marcelo A. C. S. Vieira, Department of Neurology, Natan Portella Institute of Tropical Medicine, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, E-mail: macsvieira@superig.com.br. Alessandro P. M. Romano, Health Surveillance Secretariat, Ministry of Health, Brasília, Brazil, E-mail: alessandro.romano@saude.gov.br. Amaríles S. Borba, Municipal Health Department, Surveillance Secretariat, Teresina, Brazil, E-mail: amarilesborba@gmail.com. Eliana V. P. Silva, Jannifer O. Chiang, Raimunda S. S. Azevedo, Sueli G. Rodrigues, and Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos, Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ananindeua, Brazil, E-mails: elianapinto@iec.pa.gov.br, janniferchiang@iec.pa.gov.br, raimundaazevedo@iec.pa.gov.br, suelirodrigues@iec.pa.gov.br, and pedrovasconcelos@iec.pa.gov.br. Kelsen D. Eulálio and Walfrido S. Almeida-Neto, Department of Infectious Diseases, Natan Portella Institute of Tropical Diseases, Teresina, Brazil, E-mails: walfridomed@hotmail.com and kelsendeulalio@yahoo.com.br.

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