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The Impact of Six Annual Rounds of Mass Drug Administration on Wuchereria bancrofti Infections in Humans and in Mosquitoes in Mali

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  • International Center of Excellence in Research (ICER-Mali), Filariasis Research and Training Unit, Bamako, Mali; University of Liverpool, Liverpool Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool, United Kingdom; University of Liverpool, Liverpool Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool, United Kingdom; National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, Helminth Immunology Section, Bethesda, Maryland; National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, Eosinophil Pathology Section, Bethesda, Maryland; World Health Organization, Vectors, Environment and Society Research, Geneva, Switzerland

Wuchereria bancrofti prevalence and transmission were assessed in six endemic villages in Sikasso, Mali prior to and yearly during mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and ivermectin from 2002 to 2007. Microfilaremia was determined by calibrated thick smear of night blood in adult volunteers and circulating filarial antigen was measured using immunochromatographic card test in children < 5 years of age. Mosquitoes were collected by human landing catch from July to December. None of the 686 subjects tested were microfilaremic 12 months after the sixth MDA round. More importantly, circulating antigen was not detected in any of the 120 children tested, as compared with 53% (103/194) before the institution of MDA. The number of infective bites/human/year decreased from 4.8 in 2002 to 0.04 in 2007, and only one mosquito containing a single infective larva was observed 12 months after the final MDA round. Whether this dramatic reduction in transmission will be sustained following cessation of MDA remains to be seen.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Yaya I. Coulibaly, FMPOS, BP:1805, Point G, Bamako, Mali. E-mails: yicoulibaly@icermali.org or yaya7fr@yahoo.fr

Financial support: This study was funded by the WHO/UNDP/World Bank Special Program for Tropical Diseases grant (ID A00583) to SFK and the Lymphatic Filariasis Support Centre of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK through a grant from the UK Department for International Development. This study was funded in part by the Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH.

Authors' addresses: Yaya I. Coulibaly, Benoit Dembele, Abdallah Amadou Diallo, Siaka Konate, Houseini Dolo, Siaka Yamoussa Coulibaly, Salif Seriba Doumbia, Lamine Soumaoro, Michel Emmanuel Coulibaly, and Sekou F. Traore, International Center of Excellence in Research (ICER-Mali), Filariasis Research and Training Unit, Bamako, Bamako, Mali, E-mails: yicoulibaly@icermali.org, dbenedictus@hotmail.com, adaxe@icermali.org, kiforo2002@yahoo.fr, hdolo@icermali.org, yamoussa@icermali.org, Salifdoumbia@icermali.org, soumla@icermali.org, michou@icermali.org, and cheick@icermali.org. Moses J. Bockarie, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool, United Kingdom, E-mail: Moses.Bockarie@lstmed.ac.uk. David Molyneux, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool, United Kingdom, E-mail: David.Molyneux@LSTMed.ac.uk. Thomas B. Nutman, National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, Helminth Immunology Section, Bethesda, MD, E-mail: tnutman@niaid.nih.gov. Amy D. Klion, National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, Eosinophil Pathology Section, Bethesda, MD, E-mail: aklion@niaid.nih.gov. Yeya T. Toure, World Health Organization, Vectors, Environment and Society Research, Geneva, Switzerland, E-mail: tourey@who.int.

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