Emergence of a New Lineage of Cache Valley Virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) in the Northeastern United States

Philip M. Armstrong Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut

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Theodore G. Andreadis Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut

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John F. Anderson Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut

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Cache Valley virus (CVV; Family Bunyavidae, Genus Orthobunyavirus) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis that frequently infects humans and livestock in North and Central America. In the northeastern United States, CVV transmission is unpredictable from year-to-year and may derive from the periodic extinction and reintroduction of new virus strains into this region. To evaluate this possibility, we sequenced and analyzed numerous CVV isolates sampled in Connecticut during an 18-year period to determine how the virus population may change over time. Phylogenetic analyses showed the establishment of a new viral lineage during 2010 that became dominant by 2014 and appears to have originated from southern Mexico. CVV strains from Connecticut also grouped into numerous sub-clades within each lineage that included viruses from other U.S. states and Canada. We did not observe the development and stable persistence of local viral clades in Connecticut, which may reflect the episodic pattern of CVV transmission. Together, our data support the emergence of a new lineage of CVV in the northeastern United States and suggest extensive dispersal of viral strains in North America.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Philip M. Armstrong, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington St., P.O. Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504. E-mail: philip.armstrong@ct.gov

Financial support: This work was supported in part by grants from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U50/CCU116806-01-1), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (58-6615-1-218, CONH00768 and CONH00773).

Authors' addresses: Philip M. Armstrong, Theodore G. Andreadis, and John F. Anderson, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases, New Haven, CT, E-mails: philip.armstrong@ct.gov, theodore.andreadis@ct.gov, and john.f.anderson@po.state.ct.us.

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