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We evaluated two novel, portable microscopes and locally acquired, single-ply, paper towels as filter paper for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium infection. The mobile phone-mounted Foldscope and reversed-lens CellScope had sensitivities of 55.9% and 67.6%, and specificities of 93.3% and 100.0%, respectively, compared with conventional light microscopy for diagnosing S. haematobium infection. With conventional light microscopy, urine filtration using single-ply paper towels as filter paper showed a sensitivity of 67.6% and specificity of 80.0% compared with centrifugation for the diagnosis of S. haematobium infection. With future improvements to diagnostic sensitivity, newer generation handheld and mobile phone microscopes may be valuable tools for global health applications.
Financial support: Isaac Bogoch is supported by Grand Challenges Canada.
Authors' addresses: Richard K. D. Ephraim and Evans Duah, Division of Medical Laboratory Technology, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. James S. Cybulski and Manu Prakash, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Michael V. D'Ambrosio and Daniel A. Fletcher, Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Jennifer Keiser, Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Jason R. Andrews, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, E-mail: email@example.com. Isaac I. Bogoch, Divisions of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.