• 1.

    McMullan LK, Folk SM, Kelly AJ, MacNeil A, Goldsmith CS, Metcalfe MG, Batten BC, Albarino CG, Zaki SR, Rollin PE, Nicholson WL, Nichol ST, 2012. A new phlebovirus associated with severe febrile illness in Missouri. N Engl J Med 367: 834841.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Muehlenbachs A, Fata CR, Lambert AJ, Paddock CD, Velez JO, Blau DM, Staples JE, Karlekar MB, Bhatnagar J, Nasci RS, Zaki SR, 2014. Heartland virus-associated death in Tennessee. Clin Infect Dis 59: 845850.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Pastula DM, Turabelidze G, Yates KF, Jones TF, Lambert AJ, Panella AJ, Kosoy OI, Velez JO, Fisher M, Staples E, 2014. Notes from the field: Heartland virus disease—United States, 2012–2013. MMWR 63: 270271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Kokernot RH, Calisher CH, Stannard LJ, Hayes J, 1969. Arbovirus studies in the Ohio-Mississippi Basin, 1964–1967. VII. Lone Star virus, a hitherto unknown agent isolated from the tick Amblyomma americanum (Linn). Am J Trop Med Hyg 18: 789795.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Yunker CE, Clifford CM, Thomas LA, Keirans JE, Casals J, George JE, Parker JC, 1977. Sunday Canyon virus, a new ungrouped agent from the tick Argas (A.) cooleyi in Texas. Acta Virol 21: 3644.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Calisher CH, McLean RG, Smith GC, Szmyd DM, Muth DJ, Lazuick JS, 1977. Rio Grande—a new phlebotomus fever group virus from south Texas. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26: 9971002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Savage HM, Godsey MS Jr, Lambert A, Panella NA, Burkhalter KL, Harmon JR, Lash RR, Ashley DC, Nicholson WL, 2013. First detection of Heartland virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) from field collected arthropods. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 445452.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Swei A, Russell BJ, Naccache SN, Kabre B, Veeraraghavan N, Pilgard MA, Johnson BJ, Chiu CY, 2013. The genome sequence of Lone Star virus, a highly divergent bunyavirus found in the Amblyomma americanum tick. PLoS ONE 8: e62083.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Yu XJ, Liang MF, Zhang SY, Liu Y, Li JD, Sun YL, Zhang L, Zhang QF, Popov VL, Li C, Qu J, Li Q, Zhang YP, Hai R, Wu W, Wang Q, Zhan FX, Wang XJ, Kan B, Wang SW, Wan KL, Jing HQ, Lu JX, Yin WW, Zhou H, Guan XH, Liu JF, Bi ZQ, Liu GH, Ren J, Wang H, Zhao Z, Song JD, He JR, Wan T, Zhang JS, Fu XP, Sun LN, Dong XP, Feng ZJ, Yang WZ, Hong T, Zhang Y, Walker DH, Wang Y, Li DX, 2011. Fever with thrombocytopenia associated with a novel bunyavirus in China. N Engl J Med 364: 15231532.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Liang S, Bao C, Zhou M, Hu J, Tang F, Guo X, Jiao Y, Zhang W, Luo P, Li L, Zhu K, Tan W, Lu Q, Ge H, Chen A, 2014. Seroprevalence and risk factors for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in Jiangsu Province, China, 2011. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 256259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Jiang XL, Wang XJ, Li JD, Ding SJ, Zhang QF, Qu J, Zhang S, Li C, Wu W, Jiang M, Liang MF, Bi ZQ, Li DX, 2012. Isolation, identification and characterization of SFTS bunyavirus from ticks collected on the surface of domestic animals. Bing Du Xue Bao 28: 252257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Allan BF, Goessling LS, Storch GA, Thach RE, 2010. Blood meal analysis to identify reservoir hosts for Amblyomma americanum ticks. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 433440.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Childs JE, Paddock CD, 2003. The ascendancy of Amblyomma americanum as a vector of pathogens affecting humans in the United States. Annu Rev Entomol 48: 307337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Brault AC, Langevin SA, Bowen RA, Panella NA, Biggerstaff BJ, Miller BR, Komar N, 2004. Differential virulence of West Nile strains for American crows. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 21612168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Bentler KT, Gossett DN, Root JJ, 2012. A novel anesthesia induction system for raccoons. Wildl Soc Bull 36: 807812.

  • 16.

    Belant JL, 1995. Field immobilization of raccoons with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride. Acta Theriol (Warsz) 40: 327330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Bosco-Lauth A, Harmon JR, Lash RR, Weiss S, Langevin S, Savage HM, Godsey MS Jr, Burkhalter K, Root JJ, Gidlewski T, Nicholson WL, Brault AC, Komar N, 2014. West Nile virus isolated from a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012. J Wildl Dis 56: 976978.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Tugwell P, Lancaster JL, 1962. Results of a tick-host study in northwest Arkansas. J Kans Entomol Soc 35: 202211.

  • 19.

    Endris RG, Tesh RB, Young DG, 1983. Transovarial transmission of Rio Grande virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) by the sand fly, Lutzomyia anthophora. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32: 862864.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Wang H, Nuttall PA, 2001. Intra-stadial tick-borne Thogoto virus (Orthomyxoviridae) transmission: accelerated arbovirus transmission triggered by host death. Parasitology 122: 439446.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Cooley RA, Kohls GM, 1941. The genus Amblyomma (Ixodidae) in the United States. J Parasitol 30: 77111.

  • 22.

    Clymer BC, Howell DE, Hair JA, 1970. Animal hosts of economically important ticks in eastern-central Oklahoma. Ann Entomol Soc Am 63: 612614.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Koch HG, 1981. Suitability of birds and mammals as hosts for immature stages of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol 18: 9398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Zhao L, Zhai S, Wen H, Cui F, Chi Y, Wang L, Xue F, Wang Q, Wang Z, Zhang S, Song Y, Du J, Yu XJ, 2012. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, Shandong Province, China. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 963965.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Cui F, Cao HX, Wang L, Zhang SF, Ding SJ, Yu XJ, Yu H, 2013. Clinical and epidemiological study on severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 510512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Niu G, Li J, Liang M, Jiang X, Jiang M, Yin H, Wang Z, Li C, Zhang Q, Jin C, Wang X, Ding S, Xing Z, Wang S, Bi Z, Li D, 2013. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus among domesticated animals, China. Emerg Infect Dis 19: 756763.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Ding NZ, Luo ZF, Niu DD, Ji W, Kang XH, Cai SS, Xu DS, Wang QW, He CQ, 2013. Identification of two severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus strains originating from reassortment. Virus Res 178: 543546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Serological Investigation of Heartland Virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) Exposure in Wild and Domestic Animals Adjacent to Human Case Sites in Missouri 2012–2013

View More View Less
  • Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Rickettsial Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

Heartland virus (HRTV; Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) has recently emerged as a causative agent of human disease characterized by thrombocytopenia and leukopenia in the United States. The lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum L.) has been implicated as a vector. To identify candidate vertebrate amplification hosts associated with enzootic maintenance of the virus, sera and ticks were sampled from 160 mammals (8 species) and 139 birds (26 species) captured near 2 human case residences in Andrew and Nodaway Counties in northwest Missouri. HRTV-specific neutralizing antibodies were identified in northern raccoons (42.6%), horses (17.4%), white-tailed deer (14.3%), dogs (7.7%), and Virginia opossums (3.8%), but not in birds. Virus isolation attempts from sera and ticks failed to detect HRTV. The high antibody prevalence coupled with local abundance of white-tailed deer and raccoons identifies these species as candidate amplification hosts.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Aaron C. Brault, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3156 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521. E-mail: abrault@cdc.gov

Financial support: Funding for Angela Bosco-Lauth was provided by a fellowship from the American Society of Microbiology (ASM).

Authors' addresses: Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, Nicholas A. Panella, Kristen L. Burkhalter, Marvin S. Godsey, Harry M. Savage, Nicholas Komar, and Aaron C. Brault, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Arboviral Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, E-mails: mopargal@rams.colostate.edu, nap4@cdc.gov, ktb3@cdc.gov, mjg9@cdc.gov, hms1@cdc.gov, nck6@cdc.gov, and abrault@cdc.gov. J. Jeffrey Root and Tom Gidlewski, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO, E-mails: Jeff.Root@aphis.usda.gov and Thomas.Gidlewski@aphis.usda.gov. R. Ryan Lash, Jessica R. Harmon, and William L. Nicholson, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Rickettsial Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mails: rlash@cdc.gov, jharmon@cdc.gov, and wnicholson@cdc.gov.

Save