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Molecular Detection of Fastidious and Common Bacteria as Well as Plasmodium spp. in Febrile and Afebrile Children in Franceville, Gabon

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  • URMITE, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France; Unité de Parasitologie Médicale (UPARAM) CIRMF, Franceville, Gabon; Ecole Doctorale Régionale d'Afrique Centrale, Franceville, Gabon; Département de Biologie Cellulaire et Génétique, Université des Science de la Santé, Libreville, Gabon; Département de Parasitologie Mycologie et de Médecine Tropicale, Université des Science de la Santé, Libreville, Gabon; Département de Microbiologie, Laboratoire National de Référence IST/sida, Faculté de Médecine, Université des Sciences de la Santé, Libreville, Gabon

Malaria was considered as the main cause of fever in Africa. However, with the roll back malaria initiative, the causes of fever in Africa may change. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of bacteria and Plasmodium spp. in febrile and afebrile (controls) children from Franceville, Gabon. About 793 blood samples from febrile children and 100 from controls were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with sequencing. Plasmodium spp. was the microorganism most detected in febrile (74.5%, 591/793) and controls (13%, 13/100), P < 0.0001. Its coinfection with bacteria was found only in febrile children (P = 0.0001). Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent bacterium in febrile children (2.8%, 22/793) and controls (3%, 3/100). Eight cases of Salmonella spp. (including two Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi) and two of Streptococcus pneumoniae were found only among febrile children. Borrelia spp. was found in 2 controls while Rickettsia felis was detected in 10 children (in 8 febriles and 2 afebriles). No DNA of other targeted microorganisms was detected. Plasmodium spp. remains prevalent while Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were common bacteria in Gabon. Two fastidious bacteria, Rickettsia felis and Borrelia spp., were found. Inclusion of controls should improve the understanding of the causes of fever in sub-Saharan Africa.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Didier Raoult, URMITE, Aix Marseille Université, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Marseille, France. E-mail: didier.raoult@gmail.com

Financial support: This work was supported by the Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection and the Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie.

Authors' addresses: Gaël Mourembou, Aix Marseille Université, URMITE, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Marseille, France, and Ecole Doctorale Régionale d'Afrique Centrale, B.P. 876 Franceville, Gabon, E-mail: gaelmourembou@yahoo.fr. Florence Fenollar, Cristina Socolovschi, Matthieu Million, and Didier Raoult, URMITE, Aix Marseille Université, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Marseille, France, E-mails: florence.fenollar@univ-amu.fr, cr_socolovschi@yahoo.com, matthieumillion@gmail.com, and didier.raoult@gmail.com. Guy Joseph Lemamy, Département de Biologie Cellulaire et Génétique, Université des Science de la Santé, B.P. 4009 Libreville, Gabon, E-mail: guylemamy@yahoo.fr. Hermann Nzoughe, Lady Charlene Kouna, and Fousseyni Toure-Ndouo, Unité de Parasitologie Médicale (UPARAM) CIRMF, B.P. 769 Franceville, Gabon, E-mails: nzoughehermann@yahoo.fr, kounaladycharlene@yahoo.fr, and fousseyni@yahoo.fr. Angelique Ndjoyi Mbiguino, Département de Microbiologie, Laboratoire National de Référence IST/sida, Faculté de Médecine, Université des Sciences de la Santé, B.P. 8302 Libreville, Gabon, E-mail: labmicuss@gmail.com. Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki, Unité de Parasitologie Médicale (UPARAM) CIRMF, B.P. 769 Franceville, Gabon, and Département de Parasitologie Mycologie et de Médecine Tropicale, Université des Science de la Santé, B.P. 4009 Libreville, Gabon, E-mail: lekana_jb@yahoo.fr.

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