• 1.

    World Health Organization, 2013. World Malaria Report 2013. Available at: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world_malaria_report_2013/report/en/. Accessed November 28, 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    United Nations, 2010. Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS. Available at: http://www.unaids.org/documents/20101123_GlobalReport_em.pdf. Accessed November 28, 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Hochman S, Kim K, 2009. The impact of HIV and malaria coinfection: what is known and suggested venues for further study. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis 2009: 617954.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Cohen C, Karstaedt A, Frean J, Thomas J, Govender N, Prentice E, Dini L, Galpin J, Crewe-Brown H, 2005. Increased prevalence of severe malaria in HIV-infected adults in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis 11: 16311637.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Kublin JG, Steketee RW, 2006. HIV infection and malaria. Understanding the interactions. J Infect Dis 193: 13.

  • 6.

    World Health Organization, 2004. Malaria and HIV/AIDS Interactions and Implications: Conclusion of Technical Consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Ezeamama AE, Spiegelman D, Hertzmark E, Bosch RJ, Manji KP, Duggan C, Kupka R, Lo MW, Okuma JO, Kisenge R, Aboud S, Fawzi WW, 2012. HIV infection and the incidence of malaria among HIV-exposed children from Tanzania. J Infect Dis 10: 14861494.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Goselle ON, Onwuliri COE, Onwuliri VA, 2009. Malaria infection in HIV/AIDS patients and its correlation with packed cell volume (PCV). J Vector Borne Dis 46: 205211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Skinner-Adams TS, McCarthy JS, Gardiner DL, Andrews KT, 2008. HIV and malaria co-infection: interactions and consequences of chemotherapy. Trends Parasitol 24: 264271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Grimwade K, French N, Mbatha DD, Zungu DD, Dedicoat M, Gilks CF, 2004. HIV infection as a cofactor for severe falciparum malaria in adults living in a region of unstable malaria transmission in South Africa. AIDS 18: 547554.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Ter Kuile FO, Parise ME, Verhoeff FH, Udhayakumar V, Newman RD, van Eijk AM, Rogerson SJ, Steketee RW, 2004. The burden of co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and malaria in pregnant women in sub-saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 4154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Van Geertruyden JP, D'Alessandro U, 2007. Malaria and HIV: a silent alliance. Trends Parasitol 23: 465467.

  • 13.

    Murray CK, Gasser RA, Magill AJ, Miller RS, 2008. Update on rapid diagnostic testing for malaria. Clin Microbiol Rev 21: 97110.

  • 14.

    Batwala V, Magnussen P, Nuwaha F, 2011. Comparative feasibility of implementing rapid diagnostic test and microscopy for parasitological diagnosis of malaria in Uganda. Malar J 10: 373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Mills LA, Kagaayi J, Nakigozi G, Galiwango RM, Ouma J, Shott JP, Ssempijja V, Gray RH, Wawer MJ, Serwadda D, Quinn TC, Reynolds SJ, 2010. Utility of a point-of-care malaria rapid diagnostic test for excluding malaria as the cause of fever among HIV-positive adults in Rural Rakai, Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 145147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    World Health Organization, 2011. Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test Performance 2008–2011, Summary. Available at: http://www.who.int/tdr/publications/tdr-research-publications/rdt3_summary.pdf. Accessed November 28, 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Wongsrichanalai C, Barcus MJ, Muth S, Sutamihardja A, Wernsdorfer WH, 2007. A review of malaria diagnostic tools: microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 119127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Mills LA, Kagaayi J, Shott JP, Newell K, Bwanika JB, Ssempijja V, Aluma S, Quinn TC, Reynolds SJ, Gray RH, 2010. Performance of a prototype malaria rapid diagnostic test versus thick film microscopy among HIV-positive subjects in rural Rakai, Uganda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 104: 237239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Falade CO, Adesina-Adewole B, Dada-Adegbola HO, Ajayi IO, Akinyemi JO, Ademowo OG, Adewole IF, Kanki P, 2013. Evaluation of Paracheck-PfTM rapid malaria diagnostic test for the diagnosis of malaria among HIV-positive patients in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. Pathog Glob Health 107: 6977.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Institut National de la Statistique et de la Démographie, 2010. Enquête Démographique et de Santé et à Indicateurs Multiples. Institut National de la Statistique et de la Démographie. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: ICF International. Maryland, USA. 2012

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Cypress Diagnostic, 2011. Malaria Quick Tests Instructions. Available at: http://www.diagnostics.be/en/product-range/clinical/rapid-tests/. Accessed November 28, 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    World Health Organization, 1991. Basic Malaria Microscopy; Part I. Learner's Guide. Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • 23.

    World Health Organization, 1991. Basic Malaria Microscopy; Part II. Learner's Guide. Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • 24.

    Altman DG, 1991. Practical Statistics for Medical Research, 1st Ed. London, UK: Chapman & Hall.

  • 25.

    Laurent A, Schellenberg J, Shirima K, Ketende SC, Alonso PL, Mshinda H, Tanner M, Schellenberg D, 2010. Performance of HRP-2 based rapid diagnostic test for malaria and its variation with age in an area of intense malaria transmission in southern Tanzania. Malar J 9: 294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Reyburn H, Mbakilwa H, Mwangi R, Mwerinde O, Olomi R, Drakeley C, Whitty CJM, 2007. Rapid diagnostic tests compared with malaria microscopy for guiding outpatient treatment of febrile illness in Tanzania: randomised trial. BMJ 334: 403.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Soto Tarazona A, Solari Zerpa L, Mendoza Requena D, Llanos-Cuentas A, Magill A, 2004. Evaluation of the rapid diagnostic test OptiMAL for diagnosis of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax. Braz J Infect Dis 8: 151155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Berg A, Patel S, Langeland N, Blomberg B, 2008. Falciparum malaria and HIV-1 in hospitalized adults in Maputo, Mozambique: does HIV-infection obscure the malaria diagnosis? Malar J 7: 252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Moody A, 2002. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria parasites. Clin Microbiol Rev 15: 6678.

  • 30.

    Mens P, Spieker N, Omar S, Heijnen M, Schallig H, Kager PA, 2007. Is molecular biology the best alternative for diagnosis of malaria to microscopy? A comparison between microscopy, antigen detection and molecular tests in rural Kenya and urban Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health 12: 238244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Mtove G, Nadjm B, Amos B, Hendriksen ICE, Muro F, Reyburn H, 2011. Use of an HRP2-based rapid diagnostic test to guide treatment of children admitted to hospital in a malaria-endemic area of north-east Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health 16: 545550.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Lee N, Gatton ML, Pelecanos A, Bubb M, Gonzalez I, Bell D, Cheng Q, McCarthy JS, 2012. Identification of optimal epitopes for Plasmodium falciparum rapid diagnostic tests that target histidine-rich proteins 2 and 3. J Clin Microbiol 50: 13971405.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Evaluation of a PfHRP-2 Based Rapid Diagnostic Test Versus Microscopy Method Among HIV-Positive and Unknown Serology Patients in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

View More View Less
  • Medicus Mundi Italia, Brescia, Italy; University Division of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy; Centre de Recherche Biomoléculaire Pietro Annigoni, Saint Camille (CERBA), University of Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

We evaluated the performance of a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT; Malaria Quick Test®; Cypress Diagnostic) compared with the standard thick-smear microscopy method using blood samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and individuals of unknown HIV status collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Our results show that 42.1% of 114 HIV-infected patients were concordantly RDT- and thick smear-positive, and 55.3% were concordantly negative. Sensitivity and specificity of the RDT test were 100.0% and 95.4%, respectively, with 5.9% false-positive results and a total agreement of 97.4%; 127 patients with unknown HIV serology were analyzed; of them, 40.9% were RDT- and thick smear-positive, and 46.4% concordantly negative. Sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 78.6%, respectively, with 23.5% false-positive results and a total agreement of 87.4%. Malaria Quick Test® is rapid and effective for the diagnosis of malaria and has a high sensitivity, confirming its use in general and HIV patients in particular.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Francesco Castelli, University Division of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia, Piazza Spedali 1, Brescia 25123, Italy. E-mail: francesco.castelli@unibs.it

Authors' addresses: Arianna Andreoli, Medicus Mundi Italia, Brescia, Italy, E-mail: arianna.andreoli85@gmail.com. Pier Francesco Giorgetti, Alessia Melzani, and Francesco Castelli, University Division of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy, E-mails: pifagiorgetti@hotmail.it, alessia_melzani@libero.it, and francesco.castelli@unibs.it. Virginio Pietra, University Division of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy, and Medicus Mundi Italia, Brescia, Italy, E-mail: medicusmundi.it_bf@yahoo.fr. Wetien Seni and Jaques Simpore, Centre de Recherche Biomoléculaire Pietro Annigoni, Saint Camille, University of Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, E-mails: wetiens@yahoo.fr and jacques.simpore@yahoo.fr.

Save