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Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003–2006

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  • Department of Entomology and Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut; Department of Environmental Sciences, Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases; Department of Plant Pathology and Ecology

To investigate arbovirus transmission in North Dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by Vero cell culture assay. Seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. Spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), Cache Valley virus, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), and trivittatus virus are reported. Snowshoe hare virus, Potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. The risks of Culex tarsalis and Aedes vexans transmitting WNV to humans were 61.4% and 34.0% in 2003–2006, respectively, but in 2003 when the largest epidemic was reported, risks for Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis in Cass County were 73.6% and 23.9%, respectively. Risk of humans acquiring an infectious bite was greatest from about the second week of July through most of August. West Nile virus sequences were of the WN02 genotype. Most JCV strains belonged to a single clade of genetically related strains. Cache Valley virus and JCV were prevalent during August and early September and during July and August, respectively.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to John F. Anderson, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504. E-mail: John.F.Anderson@Ct.gov

Financial support: This work was supported in part by USDA Specific Cooperative agreement 58-6615-1-218 and by Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases Cooperative Agreement U50/CCU116806-01-1 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Authors' addresses: John F. Anderson, Andrew J. Main, and Philip M. Armstrong, Department of Entomology and Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT, E-mails: John.F.Anderson@ct.gov, andymain@aucegypt.edu, and Philip.Armstrong@ct.gov. Theodore G. Andreadis, Director's Office and Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT, E-mail: Theodore.Andreadis@ct.gov. Francis J. Ferrandino, Department of Plant Pathology & Ecology, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT, E-mail: Francis.Ferrandino@ct.gov.

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