• 1.

    World Health Organization, 2007. Report of the Fifth Consultative Meeting on Leishmania/HIV Coinfection. Addis Ababa, Ethiopa: World Health Organization.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Alvar J, Aparicio P, Aseffa A, Den Boer M, Canavate C, Dedet JP, Gradoni L, Ter Horst R, Lopez-Velez R, Moreno J, 2008. The relationship between leishmaniasis and AIDS: the second 10 years. Clin Microbiol Rev 21: 334359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Dedet JP, Roche B, Pratlong F, Cales-Quist D, Jouannelle J, Benichou JC, Huerre M, 1995. Diffuse cutaneous infection caused by a presumed monoxenous trypanosomatid in a patient infected with HIV. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89: 644646.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Noyes H, Pratlong F, Chance M, Ellis J, Lanotte G, Dedet JP, 2002. A previously unclassified trypanosomatid responsible for human cutaneous lesions in Martinique (French West Indies) is the most divergent member of the genus Leishmania ss. Parasitology 124: 1724.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Desbois N, Pratlong F, Quist D, Dedet JP, 2014. Leishmania (Leishmania) martiniquensis n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), description of the parasite responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Martinique Island (French West Indies). Parasite 21: 12.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Liautaud B, Pape JW, DeHovitz JA, Thomas F, LaRoche AC, Verdier RI, Deschamps MM, Johnson WD, 1989. Pruritic skin lesions. A common initial presentation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Dermatol 125: 629632.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Mary C, Faraut F, Lascombe L, Dumon H, 2004. Quantification of Leishmania infantum DNA by a real-time PCR assay with high sensitivity. J Clin Microbiol 42: 52495255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Zeledon R, 1992. Leishmaniasis in the Caribbean Islands. A review. Ann N Y Acad Sci 653: 154160.

  • 9.

    Garin YJ, Sulahian A, Meneceur P, Pratlong F, Prina E, Gangneux J, Dedet JP, Derouin F, 2001. Experimental pathogenicity of a presumed monoxenous trypanosomatid isolated from humans in a murine model. J Eukaryot Microbiol 48: 170176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Courmes E, Escudie A, Fauran P, Monnerville A, 1966. First native case of human visceral leishmaniasis in Guadeloupe. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 59: 217226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Cnudde F, Raccurt C, Boulard F, Terron-Aboud B, Nicolas M, Juminer B, 1994. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis with visceral dissemination in an AIDS patient in Guadeloupe, West Indies. AIDS 8: 559560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Kaplan JE, Benson C, Holmes KH, Brooks JT, Pau A, Masur H, 2009. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Recomm Rep 58: 1207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Yanamandra U, Jairam A, Shankar S, Negi R, Guleria B, Nair V, 2011. Visceral leishmaniasis mimicking as second line anti retroviral therapy failure. Intern Med 50: 28552858.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Cruz I, Nieto J, Moreno J, Canavate C, Desjeux P, Alvar J, 2006. Leishmania/HIV co-infections in the second decade. Indian J Med Res 123: 357388.

  • 15.

    Cota GF, de Sousa MR, Rabello A, 2011. Predictors of visceral leishmaniasis relapse in HIV-infected patients: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Dedet JP, Gay F, Chatenay G, 1989. Isolation of Leishmania species from wild mammals in French Guiana. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83: 613615.

 

 

 

 

First Case of Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania martiniquensis

View More View Less
  • Department of Tropical and Infectious Disease, University Hospital of Fort-de-France, Fort-de-France, Martinique, French West Indies; Department of Tropical and Infectious Disease, University Hospital of Avicenne, Bobigny, France; Parasitology and Mycology Laboratory, University Hospital of Fort-de-France, Fort-de-France, Martinique, French West Indies; Hematology Laboratory, University Hospital of Fort-de-France, Fort-de-France, Martinique, French West Indies; Hematology Unit, University Hospital of Fort-de-France, Fort-de-France, Martinique, French West Indies; University Hospital of Montpellier, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5290, French National Reference Center for Leishmaniasis, Montpellier, France; Faculté des Antilles et de la Guyane, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale CIC1424 and EA4537, Martinique, French West Indies

We report the first case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis in the Caribbean, which until now, was known only to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. The disease presented with fatigue, anemia, and hepatosplenomegaly in a 61-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who was receiving antiretroviral therapy. Diagnosis was made by bone marrow biopsy. VL is life-threatening, and its emergence in the Caribbean is of concern.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Nicolas Vignier, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University Hospital of Fort-de-France, 97200 Fort-de-France, Martinique, French West Indies. E-mail: vigniernicolas@yahoo.fr

Authors' addresses: Bernard Liautaud and Nicolas Vignier, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University Hospital of Fort-de-France, Fort-de-France, Martinique, French West Indies, E-mails: Bliautaud1@gmail.com and vigniernicolas@yahoo.fr. Charline Miossec and Nicole Desbois, Department of Parasitology and Mycology, University Hospital of Fort-de-France, Fort-de-France, Martinique, French West Indies, E-mails: charlinemiossec@hotmail.fr and nicole.desbois@chu-fortdefrance.fr. Yves Plumelle, Moumini Kone, and Delphine Delta, Department of Hematology, University Hospital of Fort-de-France, Fort-de-France, Martinique, French West Indies, E-mails: yves.plumelle@chu-fortdefrance.fr, mt.kone@chu-fortdefrance.fr, and delphine.delta@gmail.com. Christophe Ravel, Université Montpellier 1, Montpellier, France, and Regional University Hospital of Montpellier, UMR5290, French National Reference Center for Leishmaniasis University, Hospital of Montpellier, Montpellier, France, E-mail: christophe.ravel@univ-montp1.fr. André Cabié, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases and Inserm CIE802, University Hospital of Fort-de-France, Fort-de-France, Martinique, French West Indies, E-mail: andre.cabie@chu-fortdefrance.fr.

Save