Screening for Imported Diseases in an Immigrant Population: Experience from a Teaching Hospital in Barcelona, Spain

Cristina Bocanegra Departments of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital, Barcelona, Spain

Search for other papers by Cristina Bocanegra in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Fernando Salvador Departments of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital, Barcelona, Spain

Search for other papers by Fernando Salvador in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Elena Sulleiro Departments of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital, Barcelona, Spain

Search for other papers by Elena Sulleiro in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá Departments of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital, Barcelona, Spain

Search for other papers by Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Albert Pahissa Departments of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital, Barcelona, Spain

Search for other papers by Albert Pahissa in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Israel Molina Departments of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital, Barcelona, Spain

Search for other papers by Israel Molina in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

The objective of this study was to describe the screening for imported diseases among an immigrant population. This retrospective observational study was of all adult immigrants attended at the Tropical Medicine Unit of the Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital from September of 2007 to March of 2010. The screening strategy was adjusted by symptoms, country of origin, and length of residence in Europe. Overall, 927 patients were included. The median age was 34.5 years, and 42.1% of patients were male. A diagnosis was made in 419 (45.2%) patients. The most frequent diagnoses were Chagas disease, anemia, latent tuberculosis infection, intestinal parasitosis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. After screening, more diseases were identified in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa (new diagnoses in 56.6% of patients) than patients from other geographic areas. The geographic origin and length of residence in a developed country determine the prevalence of diseases; hence, screening protocols must be based on this information.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Fernando Salvador, Department of Infectious Diseases, Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: fmsalvad@vhebron.net

Authors' addresses: Cristina Bocanegra, Fernando Salvador, Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá, Albert Pahissa, and Israel Molina, Department of Infectious Diseases, Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital, Barcelona, Spain, E-mails: cristinabocanegra@gmail.com, fmsalvad@vhebron.net, adrian.sanchez.montalva@gmail.com, apahissa@vhebron.net, and imolina@vhebron.net. Elena Sulleiro, Department of Microbiology, Vall d'Hebron Teaching Hospital, Barcelona, Spain, E-mail: esuillig@gmail.com.

  • 1.

    Office of the High Comissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), 2013. International Migration, Health and Human Rights. Available at: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Migration/WHO_IOM_UNOHCHRPublication.pdf. Accessed March 15, 2014.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Barnett E, 2004. Infectious disease screening for refugees resettled in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 39: 833841.

  • 3.

    Alcaide Megias J, Altet MN, de Souza ML, Jimenez MA, Mila C, Solsona J, 2004. Active tuberculosis case finding among immigrants in Barcelona. Arch Bronconeumol 40: 453458.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Veldhuijzen IK, Toy M, Hahné SJ, de Wit GA, Schalm SW, de Man RA, Richardus JH, 2010. Screening and early treatment of migrants for chronic hepatitis B virus infection is cost-effective. Gastroenterology 138: 522530.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    López-Vélez R, Huerga H, Turrientes MC, 2003. Infectious diseases in immigrants from the perspective of a tropical medicine referral unit. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 115121.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Observatorio Permanente de la Inmigraci?n, Ministry of Employment and Social Security, Spain Government, 2014. Available at: http://extranjeros.empleo.gob.es/es/ObservatorioPermanenteInmigracion/. Accessed March 15, 2014.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Ministry of the Presidency, Government of Spain, 2012. Real Decreto-Ley 16/2012, de 20 de Abril, de medidas urgentes para garantizar la sostenibilidad del Sistema Nacional de Salud y mejorar la calidad y seguridad de sus prestaciones. Available at: http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2012/04/24/. Accessed March 15, 2014.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Rougemont M, Van Saanen M, Sahli R, Hinrikson HP, Bille J, Jaton K, 2004. Detection of four Plasmodium species in blood from humans by 18 S rRNA gene subunit-based and species-specific real-time PCR assays. J Clin Microbiol 42: 56365643.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Salvador F, Treviño B, Sulleiro E, Pou D, Sánchez-Montalvá A, Cabezos J, Soriano A, Serre N, Gómez i Prat J, Pahissa A, Molina I, 2014. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a non-endemic country: epidemiological and clinical profile. Clin Microbiol Infect 20: 706712.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Manzardo C, Treviño B, Gómez i Prat J, Cabezos J, Monguí E, Clavería I, Luis del Val J, Zabaleta E, Zarzuela F, Navarro R, 2008. Communicable diseases in the immigrant population attended to in a tropical medicine unit: epidemiological aspects and public health issues. Travel Med Infect Dis 6: 411.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Roca C, Balanzó X, Fernández-Roure JL, Sauca G, Savall R, Gascón J, Corachán M, 2002. Imported diseases in African immigrants in Spain: study of 1321 patients. Med Clin (Barc) 119: 616619.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Monge-Maillo B, Jiménez BC, Pérez-Molina JA, Norman F, Navarro M, Pérez-Ayala A, Herrero JM, Zamarrón P, López-Vélez R, 2009. Imported infectious diseases in mobile populations, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 17451752.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Salvador F, Molina I, Sulleiro E, Burgos J, Curran A, Van den Eynde E, Villar del Saz S, Navarro J, Crespo M, Ocaña I, Ribera E, Falcó V, Pahissa A, 2013. Tropical diseases screening in immigrant patients with HIV infection in a European country. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88: 11961202.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    McKenna MT, McCray E, Onorato I, 2005. The epidemiology of tuberculosis among foreign-born persons in the United States, 1986–1993. N Engl J Med 332: 10711076.

  • 15.

    Klinkenberg E, Manissero D, Semenza JC, Verver S, 2009. Migrant tuberculosis screening in the EU/EEA: yield, coverage and limitations. Eur Respir J 34: 11801189.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Diz S, López-Velez R, Moreno A, Fortún J, Moreno L, Gómez-Mampaso E, Navas E, Moreno S, 2007. Epidemiology and clinical features of tuberculosis in immigrants at an infectious diseases department in Madrid. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 11: 769774.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Pai M, Denkinger CM, Kik SV, Rangaka MX, Zwerling A, Oxlade O, Metcalfe JZ, Cattamanchi A, Dowdy DW, Dheda K, Banaei N, 2014. Gamma interferon release assays for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 27: 320.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Doenhoff MJ, Chiodini PL, Hamilton JV, 2004. Specific and sensitive diagnosis of schistosome infection: can it be done with antibodies? Trends Parasitol 20: 3539.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Matisz CE, Naidu P, Shokoples SE, Grice D, Krinke V, Brown SZ, Kowalewska-Grochowska K, Houston S, Yanow SK, 2011. Post-arrival screening for malaria in asymptomatic refugees using real-time PCR. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 161165.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Committee on Migrant Workers (CMW), 2011. Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, General Comment No 1, U. N. Doc. CMW/C/GC1 (2011). Available at: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/cmw/gencom1.html. Accessed March 15, 2014.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 550 504 60
Full Text Views 500 24 7
PDF Downloads 187 15 11
 
 
 
 
Affiliate Membership Banner
 
 
Research for Health Information Banner
 
 
CLOCKSS
 
 
 
Society Publishers Coalition Banner
Save