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Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a re-emerging zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and malondialdehyde (MDA) are inflammation biomarkers that have never been investigated in VL. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between renal abnormalities and inflammation biomarkers in VL. This study is a preliminary prospective study with 16 VL adult patients evaluated before treatment compared with a group of 13 healthy volunteers and 5 VL patients evaluated after treatment. Urinary concentration and acidification tests were performed. MCP-1 and MDA were quantified in urine. Urinary concentration deficit was found in all VL patients before (100%) and four VL patients after (80%) treatment. Urinary acidification deficit was found in nine cases before (56.2%) and two cases after (40%) treatment. Urinary MCP-1 (374 ± 359 versus 42 ± 29 pg/mg creatinine, P = 0.002) as well as urinary MDA (5.4 ± 2.6 versus 2.0 ± 0.8 μmol/mL) showed significant differences between VL patients and controls. These data show that VL patients present urinary concentration and acidification deficit, which can persist even after specific treatment. Urinary MCP-1 and MDA are elevated in patients with VL, which suggests renal inflammation and incipient renal damage.
Financial support: This research was supported by the Brazilian Research Council (CNPq).
Authors' addresses: Michelle J. C. Oliveira, Aline M. Sampaio, Bárbara L. Montenegro, Marília P. Alves, and Elizabeth F. Daher, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Geraldo B. Silva Junior, School of Medicine, Master in Collective Health, Health Sciences Center, University of Fortaleza, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Guilherme A. L. Henn and Hermano A. L. Rocha, Department of Community Health, Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil, E-mails: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org. Gdayllon C. Meneses and Alice M. C. Martins, School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil, E-mail: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org.