Q Fever in French Guiana

Carole Eldin Unité de Recherche sur Les Maladies Infectieuses et Ttropicales Émergentes, Unités Mxtes de Rcherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 7278, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement 198, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unite 1095, Faculté de Médecine, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France; Unité de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalier Andrée Rosemon, Cayenne, French Guiana

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Aba Mahamat Unité de Recherche sur Les Maladies Infectieuses et Ttropicales Émergentes, Unités Mxtes de Rcherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 7278, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement 198, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unite 1095, Faculté de Médecine, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France; Unité de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalier Andrée Rosemon, Cayenne, French Guiana

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Magalie Demar Unité de Recherche sur Les Maladies Infectieuses et Ttropicales Émergentes, Unités Mxtes de Rcherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 7278, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement 198, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unite 1095, Faculté de Médecine, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France; Unité de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalier Andrée Rosemon, Cayenne, French Guiana

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Philippe Abboud Unité de Recherche sur Les Maladies Infectieuses et Ttropicales Émergentes, Unités Mxtes de Rcherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 7278, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement 198, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unite 1095, Faculté de Médecine, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France; Unité de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalier Andrée Rosemon, Cayenne, French Guiana

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Félix Djossou Unité de Recherche sur Les Maladies Infectieuses et Ttropicales Émergentes, Unités Mxtes de Rcherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 7278, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement 198, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unite 1095, Faculté de Médecine, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France; Unité de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalier Andrée Rosemon, Cayenne, French Guiana

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Didier Raoult Unité de Recherche sur Les Maladies Infectieuses et Ttropicales Émergentes, Unités Mxtes de Rcherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 7278, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement 198, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unite 1095, Faculté de Médecine, Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France; Unité de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalier Andrée Rosemon, Cayenne, French Guiana

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Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is present worldwide. Recent studies have shown that this bacterium is an emerging pathogen in French Guiana and has a high prevalence (24% of community-acquired pneumonia). In this review, we focus on the peculiar epidemiology of Q fever in French Guiana. We place it in the context of the epidemiology of the disease in the surrounding countries of South America. We also review the clinical features of Q fever in this region, which has severe initial presentation but low mortality rates. These characteristics seem to be linked to a unique genotype (genotype 17). Finally, we discuss the issue of the animal reservoir of C. burnetii in French Guiana, which is still unknown. Further studies are necessary to identify this reservoir. Identification of this reservoir will improve the understanding of the Q fever epidemic in French Guiana and will provide new tools to control this public health problem.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Didier Raoult, Unité de Recherche sur Les Maladies Infectieuses et Ttropicales Émergentes, Unités Mxtes de Rcherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 7278, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement 198, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unite 1095, Faculté de Médecine, Aix Marseille Université, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, Marseille 13005, France. E-mail: didier.raoult@gmail.com

Authors' addresses: Carole Eldin and Didier Raoult, Unité de Recherche sur Les Maladies Infectieuses et Ttropicales Émergentes, Unités Mxtes de Rcherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 7278, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement 198, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unite 1095, Faculté de Médecine, Aix Marseille Université, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, Marseille 13005, France, E-mails: carole.eldin@gmail.com and didier.raoult@gmail.com. Aba Mahamat, Magalie Demar, Philippe Abboud, and Félix Djossou, Unité de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalier Andrée Rosemon, Cayenne, French Guiana, E-mails: mahamataba@gmail.com, mdemar@yahoo.com, philippe.abboud@gmail.com, and felix.djossou@ch-cayenne.fr.

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