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Ultra–Low-Cost Urine Filtration for Schistosoma haematobium Diagnosis: A Proof-of-Concept Study

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  • Division of Medical Laboratory Technology, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana; Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; Divisions of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Simple, efficient, and cost-effective strategies are needed for urine sample preparation in the field diagnosis of infection with Schistosoma haematobium. In this proof-of-concept study, we evaluated inexpensive and widely available paper products (paper towels, school workbook paper, and newspaper) to gravity-filter urine containing 60 eggs/mL of Schistosoma haematobium. Eggs were reliably visualized by light microscopy by using single-ply paper towels as urine filters. This filtration method has broad applicability in clinical and public health settings in resource-constrained environments.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Isaac I. Bogoch, Divisions of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Toronto General Hospital, 14EN-209, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 2C4. E-mail: isaac.bogoch@uhn.ca

Authors' addresses: Richard K. D. Ephraim and Evans Duah, Division of Medical Laboratory Technology, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, E-mails: kdephraim@yahoo.com and eduah@yahoo.com. Jason R. Andrews, Department of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, E-mail: jasonandr@gmail.com. Isaac I. Bogoch, Divisions of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada, E-mail: isaac.bogoch@uhn.ca.

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