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Current Strategic Thinking for the Development of a Trivalent Alphavirus Vaccine for Human Use

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  • Chemical and Biological Technologies Department, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia; TASC, Inc., Lorton, Virginia; Computations/Global Security, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; US Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland; Joint Vaccine Acquisition Program, Medical Countermeasure Systems, Joint Program Executive Office, Fort Detrick, Maryland

Vaccinations against the encephalitic alphaviruses (western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus) are of significant interest to biological defense, public health, and agricultural communities alike. Although vaccines licensed for veterinary applications are used in the Western Hemisphere and attenuated or inactivated viruses have been used under Investigational New Drug status to protect at-risk personnel, there are currently no licensed vaccines for use in humans. Here, we will discuss the need for a trivalent vaccine that can protect humans against all three viruses, recent progress to such a vaccine, and a strategy to continue development to Food and Drug Administration licensure.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Daniel N. Wolfe, Chemical and Biological Technologies Department, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, 8725 John Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060. E-mail: daniel.wolfe@dtra.mil

Authors' addresses: Daniel N. Wolfe, Chemical and Biological Technologies Department, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, VA, E-mail: daniel.wolfe@dtra.mil. D. Gray Heppner, TASC, Inc., Lorton, VA, and Chemical and Biological Technologies Department, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, VA, E-mail: donald.heppner@tasc.com. Shea N. Gardner, Computations/Global Security, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, E-mail: Gardner26@llnl.gov. Crystal Jaing, Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, E-mail: jaing2@llnl.gov. Lesley C. Dupuy and Connie S. Schmaljohn, Virology Division, US Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD, E-mails: lesley.c.dupuy.ctr@mail.mil and connie.s.schmaljohn.civ@mail.mil. Kevin Carlton, Medical Countermeasure Systems, Joint Vaccine Acquisition Program, Fort Detrick, MD, E-mail: kevin.s.carlton.civ@mail.mil.

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