• 1.

    Adams JR, Schmidtmann ET, Azad AF, 1990. Infection of colonized cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), with a Rickettsia-like microorganism. Am J Trop Med Hyg 43: 400409.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Bouyer DH, Stenos J, Crocquet-Valdes P, Moron CG, Popov VL, Zavala-Velazquez JE, Foil LD, Stothard DR, Azad AF, Walker DH, 2001. Rickettsia felis: molecular characterization of a new member of the spotted fever group. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51: 339347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Choi YJ, Lee EM, Park JM, Lee KM, Han SH, Kim JK, Lee SH, Song HJ, Choi MS, Kim IS, Park KH, Jang WJ, 2007. Molecular detection of various rickettsiae in mites (Acari: Trombiculidae) in southern Jeolla Province, Korea. Microbiol Immunol 51: 307312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Tsui PY, Tsai KH, Weng MH, Hung YW, Liu YT, Hu KY, Lien JC, Lin PR, Shaio MF, Wang HC, Ji DD, 2007. Molecular detection and characterization of spotted fever group rickettsiae in Taiwan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 883890.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Thepparit C, Sunyakumthorn P, Guillotte ML, Popov VL, Foil LD, Macaluso KR, 2011. Isolation of a rickettsial pathogen from a non-hematophagous arthropod. PLoS ONE 6: e16396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Abarca K, López J, Acosta-Jamett G, Martínez-Valdebenito C, 2013. Rickettsia felis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus from two distant Chilean cities. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 13: 607609.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Socolovschi C, Pagés F, Raoult D, 2012. Rickettsia felis in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, Libreville, Gabon. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 16871689.

  • 8.

    Socolovschi C, Pagés F, Ndiath MO, Ratmanov P, Raoult D, 2012. Rickettsia species in African Anopheles mosquitoes. PLoS ONE 7: e48254.

  • 9.

    Pérez-Osorio CE, Zavala-Velazquez JE, Arias Leon JJ, Zavala-Castro JE, 2008. Rickettsia felis as emergent global threat for humans. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 10191023.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Reif KE, Macaluso KR, 2009. Ecology of Rickettsia felis: a review. J Med Entomol 46: 723736.

  • 11.

    Mediannikov O, Cabre O, Qu F, Socolovschi C, Davoust B, Marié J, Parola P, Raoult D, 2011. Rickettsia felis and Bartonella clarridgeiae in fleas from New Caledonia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11: 181183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Troyo A, Aìlvare D, Taylor L, Abdalla G, Calderon-Arguedas O, Zambrano ML, Dasch GA, Lindblade K, Hun L, Eremeeva ME, Esteìvez A, 2012. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 10541056.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Oliveira RP, Galvao MA, Mafra CL, Chamone CB, Calic SB, Silva SU, Walker DH, 2002. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides spp. fleas, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 317319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Horta MC, Labruna MB, Pinter A, Linardi PM, Schumaker TT, 2007. Rickettsia infection in five areas of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 102: 793801.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Gehrke FS, Gazeta GS, Souza ER, Ribeiro A, Marrelli MT, Schumaker TT, 2009. Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia sp. TwKM03 infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis collected from dogs in a Brazilian spotted fever focus in the State of Rio De Janeiro/Brazil. Clin Microbiol Infect S2: 267268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Raoult D, La Scola B, Enea M, Fournier PE, Roux V, Fenollar F, Galvao MA, Lamballerie X, 2001. A flea-associated Rickettsia pathogenic for humans. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 7381.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Maina AN, Knobel DL, Jiang J, Halliday J, Feikin DR, Cleaveland S, Nganga Z, Junghae M, Breiman RF, Richards AL, Njenga MK, 2012. Infection in febrile patients, western Kenya, 2007–2010. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 328331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Nilsson K, Wallménius K, Hartwig S, Norlander T, Pahlson C, 2013. Bell's palsy and sudden deafness associated with Rickettsia spp. Infection in Sweden. A retrospective and prospective serological survey including PCR findings. Eur J Neurol 21: 206214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Linardi PM, Guimarães LR, 2000. Sifonápteros do Brasil. São Paulo: Museu de Zoologia USP/FAPESP.

  • 20.

    Labruna MB, Whitworth T, Horta MC, Bouyer DH, McBride JW, Pinter A, Popov V, Gennari SM, Walker DH, 2004. Rickettsia species infecting Amblyomma cooperi ticks from an area in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where Brazilian spotted fever is endemic. J Clin Microbiol 42: 9098.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ, 1990. Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215: 403410.

  • 22.

    Junk WJ, Cunha CN, Wantzen KM, Petermann P, Strussmann C, Marques MI, Adis J, 2006. Biodiversity and its conservation in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Aquat Sci 68: 278309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Mendonça F, Danni-Oliveira IM, 2007. Climatologia: noções básicas e climas do Brasil. São Paulo: Oficina de Textos.

  • 24.

    Parola P, 2011. Rickettsia felis: from a rare disease in the USA to a common cause of fever in sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Microbiol Infect 17: 9961000.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Mediannikov O, Abdissa A, Diatta G, Trape J-F, Raoult D, 2012. Rickettsia felis in fleas, southern Ethiopia. Emerg Infect Dis 18: 13851386.

  • 26.

    Katz G, Camargo Neves VL, Angerami RN, Nascimento EM, Colombo S, 2009. Situação epidemiológica e importância da febre maculosa brasileira no Estado de São Paulo. Boletim Epidemiológico Paulista 6: 413.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Del Fiol FS, Junqueira FM, Rocha MC, Toledo MI, Filho SB, 2010. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Brazil. Rev Panam Salud Publica 27: 461466.

  • 28.

    Horta MC, Scott FB, Correia TR, Fernandes JI, Richtzenhain LJ, Labruna MB, 2010. Rickettsia felis infection in cat fleas Ctenocephalides felis felis. Braz J Microbiol 41: 813818.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis felis from Five Geographic Regions of Brazil

View More View Less
  • Federal University of São Francisco Valley, Petrolina, PE, Brazil; Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil

This study evaluated rickettsial infection in 701 Ctenocephalides felis felis fleas that were collected from dogs and cats in 31 municipalities, encompassing all regions and major biomes of Brazil. A total of 268 (38.2%) fleas from 30 municipalities were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for the rickettsial gltA gene. The PCR products from 44 fleas, consisting of at least 1 PCR-positive flea from each of 30 municipalities, generated DNA sequences identical to Rickettsia felis. Rickettsial prevalence was highly variable among 30 municipalities, with values ranging from 2.9% to 100%. Significantly higher infection rates by R. felis were associated with the Pampa biome (southern Brazil), and the temperate climate that prevails in southern Brazil. In contrast, lowest R. felis-infection rates were significantly associated with the Caatinga biome, and its semiarid climate. Further studies should evaluate the effect of temperature and moisture on the R. felis infection in Ctenocephalides fleas world widely.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Mauricio C. Horta, Colegiado de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Rodovia BR 407, Km 12, Lote 543, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil 56304-410. E-mail: maurivet@hotmail.com

Financial support: This work was supported by Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo à Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Pernambuco (FACEPE); and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq).

Authors' addresses: Mauricio C. Horta and Milka C. Azevedo, Colegiado de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, PE, Brazil, E-mails: maurivet@hotmail.com and milkaazevedo@yahoo.com.br. Maria Ogrzewalska, Francisco B. Costa, Fernando Ferreira, and Marcelo B. Labruna, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, E-mails: mogrzewalska@gmail.com, franc.borges@yahoo.com.br, fernando@vps.fmvz.usp.br, and labruna@usp.br.

Save