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After a category 4 cyclone that caused extensive population displacement and damage to water and sanitation infrastructure in Fiji in March 2010, a typhoid vaccination campaign was conducted as part of the post-disaster response. During June–December 2010, 64,015 doses of typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine were administered to persons ≥ 2 years of age, primarily in cyclone-affected areas that were typhoid endemic. Annual typhoid fever incidence decreased during the post-campaign year (2011) relative to preceding years (2008–2009) in three subdivisions where a large proportion of the population was vaccinated (incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals: 0.23, 0.13–0.41; 0.24, 0.14–0.41; 0.58, 0.40–0.86), and increased or remained unchanged in 12 subdivisions where little to no vaccination occurred. Vaccination played a role in reducing typhoid fever incidence in high-incidence areas after a disaster and should be considered in endemic settings, along with comprehensive control measures, as recommended by the World Health Organization.
Financial support: Funding was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization.
Authors' addresses: Heather M. Scobie, Eric Mintz, Kathleen A. Wannemuehler, Terri B. Hyde, and Kashmira Date, Global Immunization Division, Epidemic Intelligence Service, and Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Eric Nilles, Division of Pacific Technical Support, World Health Organization, Suva, Fiji, E-mail: email@example.com. Mike Kama and Akanisi Dawainavesi, Fiji Centre for Communicable Disease Control, Suva, Fiji, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Jacob L. Kool, WHO Country Liaison Office, Port Vila, Vanuatu, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Sheetalpreet Singh, Health Information Unit, Ministry of Health, Suva, Fiji, E-mail: email@example.com. Samuel Korovou, Ministry of Health, Labasa, Fiji, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Kylie Jenkins, Fiji Health Sector Improvement Program, Ministry of Health, Suva, Fiji, E-mail: email@example.com.