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Comparison between Emerging Q Fever in French Guiana and Endemic Q fever in Marseille, France

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  • Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, France; Department of Infectious and Tropical Disease, Centre Hospitalier Andrée Rosemon, Cayenne, French Guiana

Q fever is an emergent disease in French Guiana. We compared the incidence clinical and serologic profiles between patients from Cayenne, French Guiana and Marseille in metropolitan France during a four-year period. The annual incidence of diagnosed acute Q fever was significantly higher in Cayenne (17.5/100,000) than in Marseille (1.9/100,000) (P = 0.0004), but not the annual incidence of endocarditis (1.29 versus 0.34/100,000). Most patients had fever (97%) and pneumonia (83%) in Cayenne versus 81% and 8% in Marseille (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) but transaminitis was more common in patients from Marseille (54% versus 32%; P < 0.0001). The proportion of patients with cardiovascular infections was significantly lower in Cayenne (7%) than in Marseille (17%) (P = 0.017), although they showed a stronger immune response with higher levels of phase I IgG (P = 0.024). The differing epidemiology, clinical, and serologic responses of patients from Cayenne and Marseille suggest a different source of infection and a different strain of Coxiella burnetii.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Didier Raoult, Aix Marseille Université, Unité des Rickettsies, Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD198, INSERM 1095, Marseille, France. E-mail: didier.raoult@gmail.com† These authors contributed equally to this article.

Authors' addresses: Sophie Edouard and Didier Raoult, Aix Marseille Université, Unité des Rickettsies, Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD198, INSERM 1095, Marseille, France, E-mails: soph.edouard@gmail.com and didier.raoult@gmail.com. Aba Mahamat, Magalie Demar, Philippe Abboud, and Felix Djossou, Department of Infectious and Tropical Disease, Centre Hospitalier Andrée Rosemon, Cayenne, French Guiana, E-mails: mahamataba@gmail.com, magalie.demar@ch-cayenne.fr, philippe.abboud@ch-cayenne.fr, and felix.djossou@ch-cayenne.fr.

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