Comprehensive Sterilization of Malaria Vectors Using Pyriproxyfen: A Step Closer to Malaria Elimination

Dickson W. Lwetoijera Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; QIMR Berghofer Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

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Caroline Harris Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; QIMR Berghofer Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

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Samson S. Kiware Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; QIMR Berghofer Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

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Gerry F. Killeen Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; QIMR Berghofer Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

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Stefan Dongus Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; QIMR Berghofer Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

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Gregor J. Devine Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; QIMR Berghofer Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

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Silas Majambere Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; QIMR Berghofer Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia

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One of the main challenges to malaria elimination is the resilience of vectors, such as Anopheles arabiensis, that evade lethal exposure to insecticidal control measures or express resistance to their active ingredients. This study investigated a novel technology for population control that sterilizes mosquitoes using pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analogue. Females of An. arabiensis were released in a semifield system divided into four equal sections, and each section had a mud hut sheltering a tethered cow providing a blood source for mosquitoes. In all sections, the inner mud hut walls and roofs were lined with black cotton cloth. In one-half of the sections, the cloth was dusted with pyriproxyfen. An overwhelming 96% reduction in adult production was achieved in pyriproxyfen-treated sections compared with control sections. This unprecedented level of control can be exploited to design new vector control strategies that particularly target existing behaviorally resilient and insecticide-resistant populations.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Silas Majambere, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, PO Box 78373, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. E-mail: smajambere@ihi.or.tz

Financial support: This work was supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Grant OPP52644.

Authors' addresses: Dickson W. Lwetoijera, Caroline Harris, Gerry F. Killeen, Stefan Dongus, and Silas Majambere, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom, E-mails: dwilson@ihi.or.tz, charris@ihi.or.tz, gkilleen@ihi.or.tz, sdongus@ih.or.tz, and smajambere@ihi.or.tz. Samson S. Kiware, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, E-mail: skiware@ihi.or.tz. Gregor J. Devine, QIMR Berghofer Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia, E-mail: greg.devine@qimrberghofer.edu.au.

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