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Epidemiology and Control of Child Toxocariasis in the Western Brazilian Amazon – A Population-Based Study

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  • Centro de Ciências da Saúde e do Desporto, Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco - Acre, Brasil; Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Laboratório de Soroepidemiologia e Imunobiologia, São Paulo, Brasil; Programa de Computação Científica, Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Toxocara spp. infection and the seroconversion rate in the Amazon have been poorly investigated. This study analyzed individual and household-level risk factors for the presence of IgG antibodies to Toxocara spp. in urban Amazonian children over a period of 7 years and evaluated the seroconversion rates over a 1-year follow-up. In children < 59 months of age, the overall prevalence rate was 28.08% in 2003 and 23.35% in 2010. The 2010–2011 seroconversion rates were 13.90% for children 6–59 months of age and 12.30% for children 84–143 months of age. Multilevel logistic regression analysis identified child age, previous wheezing, and current infection with hookworm as significant associated factors for Toxocara spp. seropositivity in 2003. In 2010, age, previous helminthiasis, and having a dog were associated with seropositivity, whereas having piped water inside the household was a protective factor. Control programs mainly need to target at-risk children, water quality control, and animal deworming strategies.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Mônica da Silva-Nunes, Universidade Federal do Acre, BR 364 km 04, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil 69919769. E-mail: msnunes1@yahoo.com.br

Financial support: This study received financial aid from the UFAC (Brazil) and FUNTAC (Programa Pesquisa para o SUS Edital MS/CNPq/FDCT-FUNTAC/SESACRE n. 01/09) and support from the UFAC Master Program in Public Health. Research fellowships were awarded by CNPq, UFAC, DECIT, and CAPES-Reuni.

Authors' addresses: Humberto Oliart-Guzmán, Breno M. Delfino, Antonio C. Martins, Saulo A. S. Mantovani, Athos M. Braña, Thasciany M. Pereira, Fernando L. C. C. Branco, Alanderson A. Ramalho, Rhanderson G. Campos, Cristieli S. M. de Oliveira, and Pascoal T. Muniz, Universidade Federal do Acre - Centro de Ciências da Saúde e do Desporto, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, E-mails: hosoliart@hotmail.com, brenomd_@hotmail.com, antonio_camargo@hotmail, sauloaugustomantovani@hotmail.com, athosbrana@hotmail.com, thascy_moraes@hotmail.com, flccbranco@uol.com.br, alandersonalves@hotmail.com, doutorhanderson@hotmail.com, crisufac@hotmail.com, and pascoaltorres@uol.com.br. Pablo S. Fontoura, Instituto de Medicina Tropical - Laboratório de Soroepidemiologia e Imunobiologia, São Paulo, Brazil, E-mails: pablobiomed@yahoo.com.br. Thiago S. de Araujo, Federal University of Acre, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, E-mail: thiagoacre@gmail.com. Guita Rubinsky-Elefant, Institute of Tropical Medicine of São Paulo-University of São Paulo - Laboratory of Soroepidemiology and Immunobiology, São Paulo, Brazil, and Institute of Biomedical Sciences- University of São Paulo - Parasitology, São Paulo, Brazil, E-mails: guitare@usp.br or muferrei@usp.br. Cláudia T. Codeço, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation - Program for Scientific Computing, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, E-mail: codeco@fiocruz.br. Mônica da Silva-Nunes, Centro de Ciências da Saúde e do Desporto, Universidade Federal do Acre, Acre, Brazil, E-mail: msnunes1@yahoo.com.br.

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