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Effects of Malnutrition on Children's Immunity to Bacterial Antigens in Northern Senegal

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  • Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille (CIIL)—U1019 Inserm, Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 8204 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Université Lille Nord de France, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France; Centre de Recherche Biomédicale Espoir Pour la Santé (EPLS), Saint-Louis, Senegal; Institut de Recherche pour le Développement Unité Mixte Internationale (UMI) 233 TransVIHmi, Centre Régional de Recherche et de Formation à la prise en charge Clinique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Fann, Dakar, Senegal; Department of Biostatistics, Faculté de Pharmacie de Lille, Université Lille Nord de France, Lille, France; UMR198 URMITE, Campus International, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement Hann, Dakar, Senegal; UMR Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs, Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle (MIVEGEC), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement 224, CNRS5290, Université de Montpellier 1 et 2, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou (CREC), Cotonou, Benin

To evaluate immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases according to nutritional status, a longitudinal study was conducted in Senegalese children ages 1–9 years old. A linear regression analysis predicted that weight for age was positively associated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to tetanus toxoid in children born during the rainy season or at the beginning of the dry season. A relationship between village, time of visits, and levels of antibodies to tetanus showed that environmental factors played a role in modulating humoral immunity to tetanus vaccine over time. Moreover, a whole-blood stimulation assay highlighted that the production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in response to tetanus toxoid was compromised in stunted children. However, the absence of cytokine modulation in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-purified protein derivatives and phytohemagglutinin suggests that the overall ability to produce IFN-γ was preserved in stunted children. Therefore, these results show that nutritional status can specifically alter the efficacy of long-lasting immunity to tetanus.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Emmanuel Hermann, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille (CIIL)—U1019 Inserm, UMR8204 CNRS, Université Lille Nord de France, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France. E-mail: emmanuel.hermann@univ-lille2.fr

Financial support: L.G. received support from the Region Nord-Pas de Calais and the Pasteur Institute of Lille. Centre de Recherche Biomédicale Espoir Pour la Santé supported field investigation, and the Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille provided support for the achievement of the immunological assays.

Authors' addresses: Lobna Gaayeb and Gilles Riveau, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille (CIIL)—U1019 Inserm, UMR8204 CNRS, Université Lille Nord de France, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France and Centre de Recherche Biomédicale Espoir Pour la Santé (EPLS), Saint-Louis, Senegal, E-mails: lobna.gaayeb@gmail.com and gilles.riveau@gmail.com. Jean B. Sarr, Modou Seck, and Andre B. Sagna, Centre de Recherche Biomédicale Espoir Pour la Santé (EPLS), Saint-Louis, Senegal, E-mails: sarrjeanbirame@yahoo.fr, modou.seck@espoir-sante.org, and sagna.ab@gmail.com. Cécile Cames, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement UMI233 TransVIHmi, Centre Régional de Recherche et de Formation à la prise en charge Clinique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Fann, Dakar, Senegal, E-mail: Cecile.Cames@ird.fr. Claire Pincon, Department of Biostatistics, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Lille Nord de France, Lille, France, E-mail: claire.pincon@univ-lille2.fr. Jean-Baptiste Hanon, Fabien Herbert, Anne-Marie Schacht, and Emmanuel Hermann, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille (CIIL)—U1019 Inserm, UMR8204 CNRS, Université Lille Nord de France, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France, E-mails: jb.hanon@yahoo.fr, fabien.herbert@pasteur-lille.fr, am.schacht@gmail.com, and emmanuel.hermann@univ-lille2.fr. Mamadou O. Ndiath, UMR198 URMITE, Campus International, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UCAD, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement Hann, Dakar, Senegal, E-mail: ousmane.ndiatt@ird.fr. Franck Remoue, UMR MIVEGEC, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement 224, CNRS5290, Université de Montpellier 1 et 2, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou (CREC), Cotonou, Benin, E-mail: franck.remoue@ird.fr.

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