Improving Global Health Education: Development of a Global Health Competency Model

Elizabeth Ablah Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Rutgers School of Public Health, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico; University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, New York; Health Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

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Dorothy A. Biberman Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Rutgers School of Public Health, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico; University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, New York; Health Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

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Elizabeth M. Weist Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Rutgers School of Public Health, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico; University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, New York; Health Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

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Pierre Buekens Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Rutgers School of Public Health, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico; University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, New York; Health Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

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Margaret E. Bentley Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Rutgers School of Public Health, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico; University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, New York; Health Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

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Donald Burke Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Rutgers School of Public Health, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico; University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, New York; Health Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

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John R. Finnegan Jr. Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Rutgers School of Public Health, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico; University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, New York; Health Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

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Antoine Flahault Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Rutgers School of Public Health, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico; University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, New York; Health Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

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Julio Frenk Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Rutgers School of Public Health, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico; University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, New York; Health Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

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Audrey R. Gotsch Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Rutgers School of Public Health, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico; University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, New York; Health Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

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Michael J. Klag Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Rutgers School of Public Health, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico; University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, New York; Health Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

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Mario Henry Rodriguez Lopez Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Rutgers School of Public Health, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico; University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, New York; Health Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

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Philip Nasca Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Rutgers School of Public Health, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico; University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, New York; Health Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

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Stephen Shortell Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Rutgers School of Public Health, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico; University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, New York; Health Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

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Harrison C. Spencer Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, Kansas; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC; University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, Rutgers School of Public Health, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Centro de Investigaciones sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Mexico; University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer, New York; Health Policy and Management, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

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Although global health is a recommended content area for the future of education in public health, no standardized global health competency model existed for master-level public health students. Without such a competency model, academic institutions are challenged to ensure that students are able to demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) needed for successful performance in today's global health workforce. The Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH) sought to address this need by facilitating the development of a global health competency model through a multistage modified-Delphi process. Practitioners and academic global health experts provided leadership and guidance throughout the competency development process. The resulting product, the Global Health Competency Model 1.1, includes seven domains and 36 competencies. The Global Health Competency Model 1.1 provides a platform for engaging educators, students, and global health employers in discussion of the KSAs needed to improve human health on a global scale.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Elizabeth Ablah, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, 1010 N. Kansas, Wichita, KS 67214. E-mail: eablah@kumc.edu

Authors' addresses: Elizabeth Ablah, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, KS, E-mail: eablah@kumc.edu. Dorothy A. Biberman, Global Health, Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC, E-mail: dbiberman@aspph.org. Elizabeth M. Weist, Special Projects, Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC, E-mail: eweist@aspph.org. Pierre Buekens, Office of the Dean, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, E-mail: pbuekens@tulane.edu. Margaret E. Bentley, Associate Dean for Global Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC, E-mail: pbentley@unc.edu. Donald Burke, Office of the Dean, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA, E-mail: donburke@pitt.edu. John R. Finnegan, Jr., University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, MN, E-mail: sphdean@umn.edu. Antoine Flahault, Descartes School of Medicine, Sorbonne Paris Cité - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, E-mail: antoine.flahault@parisdescartes.fr. Julio Frenk, Office of the Dean, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, E-mail: jfrenk@hsph.harvard.edu. Audrey R. Gotsch, Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, School of Public Health, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, E-mail: audrey.gotsch@rutgers.edu. Michael J. Klag, Office of the Dean, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, E-mail: mklag@jhsph.edu. Mario Henry Rodriguez Lopez, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Ahucatitian, Cuernavaca, Mexico, E-mail: mhenry@correo.insp.mx. Philip Nasca, University at Albany SUNY School of Public Health, Rensselaer NY, E-mail: pnasca@albany.edu. Stephen Shortell, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA, E-mail: shortell@berkeley.edu. Harrison C. Spencer, President and CEO, Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, DC, E-mail: hspencer@aspph.org.

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