Lindsey NP, Staples JE, Lehman JA, Fischer M, 2010. Surveillance for human West Nile virus disease - United States, 1999–2008. MMWR Surveill Summ 59: 1–17.
Nash D, Mostashari F, Fine A, Miller J, O'Leary D, Murray K, Huang A, Rosenberg A, Greenberg A, Sherman M, Wong S, Layton M, 2001. The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999. N Engl J Med 344: 1807–1814.
Campbell GL, Marfin AA, Lanciotti RS, Gubler DJ, 2002. West Nile virus. Lancet Infect Dis 2: 519–529.
Watson JT, Pertel PE, Jones RC, Siston AM, Paul WS, Austin CC, Gerber SI, 2004. Clinical characteristics and functional outcomes of West Nile fever. Ann Intern Med 141: 360–365.
Sejvar JJ, Marfin AA, 2006. Manifestations of West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Rev Med Virol 16: 209–224.
Klee AL, Maidin B, Edwin B, Poshni I, Mostashari F, Fine A, Layton M, Nash D, 2004. Long-term prognosis for clinical West Nile virus infection. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 1405–1411.
Cook RL, Xu X, Yablonsky EJ, Sakata N, Tripp JH, Hess R, Piazza P, Rinaldo CR, 2010. Demographic and clinical factors associated with persistent symptoms after West Nile virus infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 1133–1136.
Carson PJ, Konewko P, Wold KS, Mariani P, Goli S, Bergloff P, Crosby RD, 2006. Long-term clinical and neuropsychological outcomes of West Nile virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 43: 723–730.
Sejvar JJ, 2007. The long-term outcomes of human West Nile virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 44: 1617–1624.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010. West Nile virus activity - United States, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 59: 769–772.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013. West Nile virus disease cases and presumptive viremic blood donors reported to ArboNET, United States, 2011. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/westnile/statsMaps/finalMapsData/data/2011WNVHumanInfectionsbyState.pdf. Accessed January 9, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012. West Nile virus disease and other arboviral diseases - United States, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 61: 510–514.
Barber LM, Schleier JJ, Peterson RK, 2010. Economic cost analysis of West Nile virus outbreak, Sacramento County, California, USA, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 480–486.
Zohrabian A, Meltzer MI, Ratard R, Billah K, Molinari NA, Roy K, Scott RD, Petersen LR, 2004. West Nile virus economic impact, Louisiana, 2002. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 1736–1744.
Grosse SD, Krueger KV, Mvundura M, 2009. Economic productivity by age and sex: 2007 estimates for the United States. Med Care 47: s94–s103.
Bode AV, Sejvar JJ, Pape WJ, Campbell GL, Marfin AA, 2006. West Nile virus disease: a descriptive study of 228 patients hospitalized in a 4-county region of Colorado in 2003. Clin Infect Dis 42: 1234–1240.
Sejvar JJ, Curns AT, Welburg L, Jones JF, Lundgren LM, Capuron L, Pape J, Reeves WC, Campbel GL, 2008. Neurocognitive and functional outcomes in persons recovering from West Nile virus illness. J Neuropsychol 2: 477–499.
Bretz F, Hothorn T, Westfall P, 2010. Multiple Comparisons Using R. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
Davis LE, DeBiasi R, Goade DE, Haaland KY, Harrington JA, Harnar JB, Pergam SA, King MK, DeMasters BK, Tyler KL, 2006. West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease. Ann Neurol 60: 286–300.
Frenzen PD, 2008. Economic cost of Guillain-Barré syndrome in the United States. Neurol 71: 21–27.
Khetsuriani N, Holman RC, Anderson LJ, 2002. Burden of encephalitis-associated hospitalizations in the United States, 1988–1997. Clin Infect Dis 35: 175–182.
Holmquist L, Russo CA, Elixhauser A, 2008. Meningitis-related hospitalizations in the United States, 2006: Statistical Brief #57. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK56046/21. Accessed August 21, 2013.
Weber IB, Lindsey NP, Bunko-Patterson AM, Briggs G, Wadleigh TJ, Sylvester TL, Levy C, Komatsu KK, Lehman JA, Fischer M, Staples JE, 2012. Completeness of West Nile virus testing in patients with meningitis and encephalitis during an outbreak in Arizona, USA. Epidemiol Infect 140: 1632–1636.
Henry J; Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013. Health Care Expenditures per Capita by Service by State of Residence. Available at: http://kff.org/other/state-indicator/health-spending-per-capita-by-service/. Accessed July 31, 2013.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||600||255||8|
There are no published data on the economic burden for specific West Nile virus (WNV) clinical syndromes (i.e., fever, meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis [AFP]). We estimated initial hospital and lost-productivity costs from 80 patients hospitalized with WNV disease in Colorado during 2003; 38 of these patients were followed for 5 years to determine long-term medical and lost-productivity costs. Initial costs were highest for patients with AFP (median $25,117; range $5,385–$283,381) and encephalitis (median $20,105; range $3,965–$324,167). Long-term costs were highest for patients with AFP (median $22,628; range $624–$439,945) and meningitis (median $10,556; range $0–$260,748). Extrapolating from this small cohort to national surveillance data, we estimated the total cumulative costs of reported WNV hospitalized cases from 1999 through 2012 to be $778 million (95% confidence interval $673 million–$1.01 billion). These estimates can be used in assessing the cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent WNV disease.
Authors' addresses: J. Erin Staples and Marc Fischer, Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Manjunath B. Shankar and Martin I. Meltzer, Scientific and Program Services Branch, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. James J. Sejvar, Prion and Public Health Office, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.