• 1.

    Alves M, Xiao L, Antunes F, Maltos O, 2006. Distribution of Cryptosporidium subtypes in human and domestic and wild ruminants in Portugal. Parasitol Res 99: 287292.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Chalmers RM, Katzer F, 2013. Looking for Cryptosporidium: the application of advances in detection and diagnosis. Trends Parasitol 29: 237251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Xiao L, 2010. Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis: an update. Exp Parasitol 124: 8089.

  • 4.

    El Sherbini GT, Mohammad KA, 2006. Zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in man and animal in farms, Giza Governorate, Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 36: 4958.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Essid R, Mousli M, Aoun K, Abdelmalak R, Mallouli F, Kanoun F, Derouin F, Bouratbine A, 2008. Identification of Cryptosporidium species infecting humans in Tunisia. Am Soc Trop Med Hyg 79: 702705.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Soltane R, Guyot K, Dei Cas E, Ayadi A, 2007. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. (Eucoccidiorida: Cryptosporiidae) in seven species of farm animals in Tunisia. Parasite 11: 335338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Gatei W, Hart CA, Gilman RH, Das P, Cama V, Xiao L, 2006. Development of a multilocus sequence typing tool for Cryptosporidium hominis. J Eukaryot Microbiol 53: 4348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Wielinga PR, De Vries A, Vander Goot TH, Mank T, Mars MH, Kortbeek LM, Van der Giessen JW, 2008. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in humans and cattle in The Netherlands. Int J Parasitol 38: 809817.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Jaouad M, 2010. Constraints to improving forage feed resources and their impacts on the dynamics of the cattle breeding in Tunisia. Porqueddu C, Ríos S eds. The Contributions of Grasslands to the Conservation of Mediterranean Biodiversity. Zaragoza, Spain: CIHEAM/CIBIO/FAO/SEEP (Options Méditerranéennes: Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens 92), 3943.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Allen AVH, Ridley DS, 1970. Further observations on the formol ether concentration technique for feacal parasites. J Clin Pathol 23: 545546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Casmore DP, 1991. The epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis and the water route of infection. Water Sci Technol 24: 157164.

  • 12.

    Henriksen SA, Pohlenz JF, 1982. Staining cryptosporidia by modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Acta Vet Scand 22: 594596.

  • 13.

    Coupé S, Safarti C, Hamane S, Dérouin F, 2005. Detection of Cryptosporidium and identification to the species level by nested PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. J Clin Microbiol 43: 10171023.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Sulaiman IM, Hira PR, Zhou L, Al Ali FM, Al Shelahi FA, Shweiki HM, Iqbal J, Khalid N, Xiao L, 2005. Unique endemicity of cryptosporidiosis in children in Kuwait. J Clin Microbiol 43: 28052809.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Stibbs HH, Ongerth JE, 1986. Immunofluorescence detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal smears. J Clin Microbiol 24: 517521.

  • 16.

    Weber R, Bryan RT, Bishop HS, Wahlquist SP, Sullivan JJ, Juranek DD, 1991. Threshold of detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in human stool specimens: evidence for low sensitivity of current diagnostic methods. J Clin Microbiol 29: 13231327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Trotz Williams LA, Martin DS, Gatei W, Cama V, Peregrine AS, Martin SW, Nydam DV, Jamieson F, Xiao L, 2006. Genotype and subtype analyses of Cryptosporidium isolates from dairy calves and humans in Ontario. Parasitol Res 99: 346352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Xiao L, Zhou L, Santin M, Yang W, Fayer R, 2007. Distribution of Cryptosporidium parvum subtypes in calves in eastern United States. Parasitol Res 100: 701706.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Quilez J, Torres E, Chalmers RM, Hadfield SJ, Del Cacho E, Sanchez Acedo C, 2008. Cryptosporidium genotypes and subtypes in lambs and goat kids in Spain. Appl Environ Microbiol 74: 60266031.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Goh S, Reacher M, Casemore DP, Verlander NQ, Chalmers R, Knowles M, Williams J, Osborn K, Richards S, 2004. Sporadic cryptosporidiosis, North Cumbria, England, 1996–2000. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 10071015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Hunter PR, Hughes S, Woodhouse S, Syed Q, Verlander NQ, Chalmers RM, Morgan K, Nichols G, Beeching N, Osborn K, 2004. Sporadic cryptosporidiosis case-control study with genotyping. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 12411249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Robertson B, Sinclair MI, Forbes AB, Veith M, Kirk M, Cunliffe D, Willis J, Fairley CK, 2002. Case-control studies of sporadic cryptosporidiosis in Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia. Epidemiol Infect 128: 419431.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Roy SL, DeLong SM, Stenzel SA, Shiferaw B, Roberts JM, Khalakdina A, Marcus R, Segler SD, Shah D, Thomas S, Vugia DJ, Zansky SM, Dietz V, Beach MJ, 2004. Risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis among immunocompetent persons in the United States from 1999 to 2001. J Clin Microbiol 42: 29442951.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Ashbolt RH, Coleman DJ, Misrachi A, Conti JM, Kirk MD, 2003. An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with an animal nursery at a regional fair. Commun Dis Intell 27: 244249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Harper CM, Cowell NA, Adams BC, Langley AJ, Wohlsen TD, 2002. Outbreak of Cryptosporidium linked to drinking unpasteurised milk. Commun Dis Intell 26: 449450.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Kiang KM, Scheftel JM, Leano FT, Taylor CM, Belle Isle PA, Cebelinski EA, Danila R, Smith KE, 2006. Recurrent outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis associated with calves among students at an educational farm programme, Minnesota, 2003. Epidemiol Infect 134: 878886.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 
 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glycoprotein 60 Diversity in Cryptosporidium parvum Causing Human and Cattle Cryptosporidiosis in the Rural Region of Northern Tunisia

View More View Less
  • Laboratoire de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia

The zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium parvum was studied in an extensive cattle farming region of northern Tunisia. Seventy fecal samples from pre-weaning calves and 403 fecal samples from children were examined by microscopy after modified Ziehl–Neelsen (MZN) staining. Positive Cryptosporidium specimens were identified at a species level using an 18S rRNA nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by an Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. C. parvum isolates were subgenotyped by sequence analysis of the glycoprotein 60 (gp60) gene. Among calf samples, 14 samples were positive by MZN method. C. parvum was identified in all cases. Twelve parvum isolates (85.7%) belonged to family subtype IIa. Subtype IIaA15G2R1 was more prevalent (50%). Two C. parvum isolates corresponded to the IIdA16G1 subtype. Seven human samples were positive by MZN method. C. parvum and C. meleagridis were identified in four and three cases, respectively. Intraspecific characterization of C. parvum identified two subtypes, the IIaA15G2R1 and the IIdA16G1, also found in calves.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Aïda Bouratbine, Laboratoire de Parasitologie-Mycologie, LR 11-IPT-06, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 place Pasteur, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia. E-mail: aida.bouratbine@pasteur.rns.tn† These authors contributed equally.

Authors' addresses: Ikram Rahmouni, Rym Essid, Karim Aoun, and Aïda Bouratbine, Laboratoire de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia, E-mails: ikra_rah@hotmail.fr, essidrym@hotmail.com, karim.aoun@pasteur.rns.tn, and aida.bouratbine@pasteur.rns.tn.

Save