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Opportunistic Diseases in HIV-Infected Patients in Gabon following the Administration of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: A Retrospective Study

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  • Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Health Sciences – Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Libreville, Gabon; Union's Office in Myanmar – Infectious Diseases, Naypyidaw, Myanmar; Centre Hospitalier de Denain, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, 25 bis rue Jean Jaurès, 59723, Denain cedex, France

Opportunistic diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) leading to immune reconstitution is the most effective treatment of preventing opportunistic diseases. This retrospective study established an epidemiologic profile of opportunistic diseases 10 years after the introduction of HAART. The HIV antiretroviral therapy-naive patients matching inclusion criteria were included. The primary outcome was the prevalence of opportunistic diseases. From January 1, 2002 to September 30, 2010, 654 opportunistic diseases were identified in 458 patients. Pulmonary tuberculosis, herpes zoster, cerebral toxoplasmosis, oral candidiasis, and severe pneumonia accounted for 22.05%, 15.94%, 14.19%, 14.19%, and 9.39%, respectively. Cryptococcal meningitis and pneumocystosis accounted for 0.44% and 0.21%, respectively. The prevalence of opportunistic diseases in Gabon remains high. New guidelines emphasize the importance of initiating antiretroviral therapy early to reconstitute the immune system, and reduce disease risk, and treat the primary opportunistic infection of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Arnaud Dzeing-Ella, Centre Hospitalier de Denain, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, 25 bis rue Jean Jaurès, 59723, Denain cedex, France. E-mails: dzeingarnaud@yahoo.fr or dzeingarnaud@gmail.com

Authors' addresses: Madeleine Okome-Nkoumou, Vincent Guiyedi, Magloire Ondounda, Nora Efire, and Mireille Dibo, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Health Sciences - Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Libreville, Gabon, E-mails: okomenkoumou@gmail.com, guidyvin@hotmail.com, magondounda@yahoo.fr, nora_sylvana@yahoo.fr, and mireillemys81@yahoo.fr. Philippe Clevenbergh, Union's office in Myanmar - Infectious Diseases, Naypyidaw, Myanmar, E-mail: pclevenbergh@theunion.org. Arnaud Dzeing-Ella, Centre Hospitalier de Denain, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, 25 bis rue Jean Jaurès, 59723 Denain cedex, France, E-mails: dzeingarnaud@yahoo.fr or dzeingarnaud@gmail.com.

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