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We determined the prevalence of seven clinically important pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], HSV-2, and Treponema pallidum), by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) in samples from Brazilian woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and uninfected Brazilian women (controls). The M-PCR assay identified all STIs tested for and surprisingly, occurred association between the control and STIs. This association was probably caused by excellent HIV infection control and regular monitoring in these women established by public health strategies in Brazil to combat HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Studies using this M-PCR in different populations may help to better elucidate the roles of STIs in several conditions.
Financial support: This work was supported by grants from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, AUX-PE-PRODOC 2571/2010, Brazilian Government.
Disclosure: None of the authors have any commercial or other conflicts of interest.
Authors' addresses: Raquel P. Souza, André L. P. de Abreu, Fabrícia Gimenes, and Marcia E. L. Consolaro, Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Biomedicina, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020900, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Érika C. Ferreira, Departamento de Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020900, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Sheila C. Rocha-Brischiliari, Maria D. de B. Carvalho, and Sandra M. Pelloso, Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020900, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Marcelo G. Bonini, College of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.