Two Cases of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in the Netherlands without Recent Travel to a Malaria-Endemic Country

Joop E. Arends Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, and Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Municipal Health Service, Midden-Nederland, Zeist, The Netherlands; Centre for Monitoring of Vectors, Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Jan Jelrik Oosterheert Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, and Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Municipal Health Service, Midden-Nederland, Zeist, The Netherlands; Centre for Monitoring of Vectors, Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Marleen M. Kraaij-Dirkzwager Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, and Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Municipal Health Service, Midden-Nederland, Zeist, The Netherlands; Centre for Monitoring of Vectors, Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Jan A. Kaan Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, and Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Municipal Health Service, Midden-Nederland, Zeist, The Netherlands; Centre for Monitoring of Vectors, Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Ewout B. Fanoy Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, and Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Municipal Health Service, Midden-Nederland, Zeist, The Netherlands; Centre for Monitoring of Vectors, Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Pieter-Jan Haas Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, and Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Municipal Health Service, Midden-Nederland, Zeist, The Netherlands; Centre for Monitoring of Vectors, Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Ernst-Jan Scholte Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, and Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Municipal Health Service, Midden-Nederland, Zeist, The Netherlands; Centre for Monitoring of Vectors, Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Laetitia M. Kortbeek Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, and Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Municipal Health Service, Midden-Nederland, Zeist, The Netherlands; Centre for Monitoring of Vectors, Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Sanjay U. C. Sankatsing Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, and Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Municipal Health Service, Midden-Nederland, Zeist, The Netherlands; Centre for Monitoring of Vectors, Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Recently, two patients of African origin were given a diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria without recent travel to a malaria-endemic country. This observation highlights the importance for clinicians to consider tropical malaria in patients with fever. Possible transmission routes of P. falciparum to these patients will be discussed. From a public health perspective, international collaboration is crucial when potential cases of European autochthonous P. falciparum malaria in Europe re considered.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Joop E. Arends, Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases and Department of Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, F02.126 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands. E-mail: j.e.arends@umcutrecht.nl

Authors' addresses: Joop E. Arends, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert, and Pieter-Jan Haas, Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases and Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht, The Netherlands, E-mails: j.e.arends@umcutrecht.nl, j.j.oosterheert@umcutrecht.nl, and p.j.a.haas@umcutrecht.nl. Marleen M. Kraaij-Dirkzwager, Department of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, E-mail: marleen.kraaij@rivm.nl. Jan A. Kaan, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, E-mail: jkaan@diakhuis.nl. Ewout B. Fanoy, Infectieziekten, Municipal Health, Midden-Nederland, Zeist, The Netherlands, E-mail: efanoy@ggdmn.nl. Ernst-Jan Scholte, Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, Binnenhaven 7, Wageningen 6700 EH, The Netherlands, E-mail: e.j.scholte@minlnv.nl. Laetitia M. Kortbeek, Department of Diagnostic Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Perinatal Screening, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven 3720BA, The Netherlands, E-mail: titia.kortbeek@rivm.nl. Sanjay U. C. Sankatsing, Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Diakonessenhuis Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, E-mail: ssankatsing@diakhuis.nl.

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