• 1.

    Raoult D, Roux V, 1997. Rickettsioses as paradigms of new or emerging infectious diseases. Clin Microbiol Rev 10: 694719.

  • 2.

    Perez-Osorio CE, Zavala-Velazquez JE, Arias Leon JJ, Zavala-Castro JE, 2008. Rickettsia felis as emergent global threat for humans. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 10191023.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Abdad MY, Stenos J, Graves S, 2011. Rickettsia felis, an emerging flea-transmitted human pathogen. Emerg Health Threats J 4: 17.

  • 4.

    Reif KE, Macaluso KR, 2009. Ecology of Rickettsia felis: a review. J Med Entomol 46: 723736.

  • 5.

    Nava S, Perez-Martinez L, Venzal JM, Portillo A, Santibanez S, Oteo JA, 2008. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis from Argentina. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8: 465466.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Oliveira KA, Oliveira LS, Dias CC, Silva A Jr, Almeida MR, Almada G, Bouyer DH, Galvao MA, Mafra C, 2008. Molecular identification of Rickettsia felis in ticks and fleas from an endemic area for Brazilian Spotted Fever. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 103: 191194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Oliveira RP, Galvao MA, Mafra CL, Chamone CB, Calic SB, Silva SU, Walker DH, 2002. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides spp. fleas, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 317319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Horta MC, Pinter A, Cortez A, Soares RM, Gennari SM, Schumaker TTS, Labruna MB, 2005. Rickettsia felis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 57: 321325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Cardoso LD, Freitas RN, Mafra CL, Neves CV, Figueira FC, Labruna MB, Gennari SM, Walker DH, Galvao MA, 2006. Characterization of Rickettsia spp. circulating in a silent peri-urban focus for Brazilian spotted fever in Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 22: 495501.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Horta MC, Chiebao DP, de Souza DB, Ferreira F, Pinheiro SR, Labruna MB, Schumaker TT, 2006. Prevalence of Rickettsia felis in the fleas Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides canis from two Indian villages in Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078: 361363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Horta MC, Labruna MB, Pinter A, Linardi PM, Schumaker TT, 2007. Rickettsia infection in five areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 102: 793801.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Kamrani A, Parreira VR, Greenwood J, Prescott JF, 2008. The prevalence of Bartonella, Hemoplasma, and Rickettsia felis infections in domestic cats and in cat fleas in Ontario. Can J Vet Res 72: 411419.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Labruna MB, Ogrzewalska M, Moraes-Filho J, Lepe P, Gallegos JL, Lopez J, 2007. Rickettsia felis in Chile. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 17941795.

  • 14.

    Hun L, Troyo A, Taylor L, Barbieri AM, Labruna MB, 2011. First report of the isolation and molecular characterization of Rickettsia amblyommii and Rickettsia felis in Central America. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11: 13951397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Zavala-Velazquez JE, Zavala-Castro JE, Vado-Solis I, Ruiz-Sosa JA, Moron CG, Bouyer DH, Walker DH, 2002. Identification of Ctenocephalides felis fleas as a host of Rickettsia felis, the agent of a spotted fever rickettsiosis in Yucatan, Mexico. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2: 6975.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Bermudez CS, Zaldivar AY, Spolidorio MG, Moraes-Filho J, Miranda RJ, Caballero CM, Mendoza Y, Labruna MB, 2011. Rickettsial infection in domestic mammals and their ectoparasites in El Valle de Anton, Cocle, Panama. Vet Parasitol 177: 134138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Blair PJ, Jiang J, Schoeler GB, Moron C, Anaya E, Cespedes M, Cruz C, Felices V, Guevara C, Mendoza L, Villaseca P, Sumner JW, Richards AL, Olson JG, 2004. Characterization of spotted fever group rickettsiae in flea and tick specimens from northern Peru. J Clin Microbiol 42: 49614967.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Williams SG, Sacci JB Jr, Schriefer ME, Andersen EM, Fujioka KK, Sorvillo FJ, Barr AR, Azad AF, 1992. Typhus and typhuslike rickettsiae associated with opossums and their fleas in Los Angeles County, California. J Clin Microbiol 30: 17581762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Stevenson HL, Labruna MB, Montenieri JA, Kosoy MY, Gage KL, Walker DH, 2005. Detection of Rickettsia felis in a New World flea species, Anomiopsyllus nudata (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae). J Med Entomol 42: 163167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Reeves WK, Loftis AD, Sanders F, Spinks MD, Wills W, Denison AM, Dasch GA, 2006. Borrelia, Coxiella, and Rickettsia in Carios capensis (Acari: Argasidae) from a brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) rookery in South Carolina, USA. Exp Appl Acarol 39: 321329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Hawley JR, Shaw SE, Lappin MR, 2007. Prevalence of Rickettsia felis DNA in the blood of cats and their fleas in the United States. J Feline Med Surg 9: 258262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Eremeeva ME, 2008. Rickettsia typhi and R. felis in rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), Oahu, Hawaii. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 16131615.

  • 23.

    Venzal JM, Perez-Martinez L, Felix ML, Portillo A, Blanco JR, Oteo JA, 2006. Prevalence of Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis from Uruguay. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1078: 305308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Hidalgo M, Salguero E, de la Ossa A, Sanchez R, Vesga JF, Orejuela L, Valbuena G, 2008. Murine typhus in Caldas, Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 321322.

  • 25.

    Hidalgo M, Montoya V, Martinez A, Mercado M, De la Ossa A, Velez C, Estrada G, Perez JE, Faccini-Martinez AA, Labruna MB, Valbuena G, 2013. Flea-borne rickettsioses in the north of Caldas province, Colombia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 13: 289294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Wall R, Shearer D, 2001. Veterinary Ectoparasites: Biology, Pathology and Control. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science.

  • 27.

    Furman P, Catts D, 1982. Order Siphonaptera. Furman P, Catts D, eds. Manual of Medical Entomology, 4th Ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 138157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Labruna MB, Whitworth T, Horta MC, Bouyer DH, McBride JW, Pinter A, Popov V, Gennari SM, Walker DH, 2004. Rickettsia species infecting Amblyomma cooperi ticks from an area in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where Brazilian spotted fever is endemic. J Clin Microbiol 42: 9098.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Roux V, Raoult D, 2000. Phylogenetic analysis of members of the genus Rickettsia using the gene encoding the outer-membrane protein rOmpB (ompB). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50: 14491455.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Webb L, Carl M, Malloy DC, Dasch GA, Azad AF, 1990. Detection of murine typhus infection in fleas by using the polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 28: 530534.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ, 1990. Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215: 403410.

  • 32.

    Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S, 2011. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 28: 27312739.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Abramowicz KF, Wekesa JW, Nwadike CN, Zambrano ML, Karpathy SE, Cecil D, Burns J, Hu R, Eremeeva ME, 2012. Rickettsia felis in cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis parasitizing opossums, San Bernardino County, California. Med Vet Entomol 26: 458462.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Gehrke FS, Gazeta GS, Souza ER, Ribeiro A, Marrelli MT, Schumaker TT, 2009. Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia sp. TwKM03 infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis collected from dogs in a Brazilian spotted fever focus in the State of Rio De Janeiro/Brazil. Clin Microbiol Infect 15 (Suppl 2): 267268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Tsai KH, Lu HY, Huang JH, Wang PJ, Wang HC, Huang CG, Wu WJ, Shu PY, 2009. Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in Taiwan. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 9: 561563.

  • 36.

    Gilles J, Just FT, Silaghi C, Pradel I, Lengauer H, Hellmann K, Pfister K, 2008. Rickettsia felis in fleas, France. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 684686.

  • 37.

    Kelly PJ, Meads N, Theobald A, Fournier PE, Raoult D, 2004. Rickettsia felis, Bartonella henselae, and B. clarridgeiae, New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 967968.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Labruna MB, Mattar S, Nava S, Bermudez CS, Venzal JM, Dolz G, Abarca K, Romero L, De Sousa R, Oteo JA, Zavala-Castro JE, 2011. Rickettsiosis in Latin America, Caribbean, Spain and Portugal. Rev MVZ Córdoba 16: 24352457.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Sackal C, Laudisoit A, Kosoy M, Massung R, Eremeeva ME, Karpathy SE, Van Wyk K, Gabitzsch E, Zeidner NS, 2008. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia felis in fleas, Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 19721974.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Azad AF, Radulovic S, Higgins JA, Noden BH, Troyer JM, 1997. Flea-borne rickettsioses: ecologic considerations. Emerg Infect Dis 3: 319327.

  • 41.

    Bitam I, Dittmar K, Parola P, Whiting MF, Raoult D, 2010. Fleas and flea-borne diseases. Int J Infect Dis 14: e667e676.

  • 42.

    Noden BH, Radulovic S, Higgins JA, Azad AF, 1998. Molecular identification of Rickettsia typhi and R. felis in co-infected Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). J Med Entomol 35: 410414.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Jiang J, Soeatmadji DW, Henry KM, Ratiwayanto S, Bangs MJ, Richards AL, 2006. Rickettsia felis in Xenopsylla cheopis, Java, Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 12811283.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Abramowicz KF, Rood MP, Krueger L, Eremeeva ME, 2010. Urban Focus of Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis in Los Angeles, California. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11: 979984.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 
 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Different Flea Species from Caldas, Colombia

View More View Less
  • Grupo Parasitología Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia; Grupo Enfermedades Infecciosas, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia; Facultad Ciencias para la Salud, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia; Dirección Territorial de Salud de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia; Programa de Bacteriología, Universidad Católica de Manizales, Manizales, Colombia; Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas

Rickettsioses caused by Rickettsia felis are an emergent global threat. Historically, the northern region of the province of Caldas in Colombia has reported murine typhus cases, and recently, serological studies confirmed high seroprevalence for both R. felis and R. typhi. In the present study, fleas from seven municipalities were collected from dogs, cats, and mice. DNA was extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify gltA, ompB, and 17kD genes. Positive samples were sequenced to identify the species of Rickettsia. Of 1,341 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis was the most prevalent (76.7%). Positive PCR results in the three genes were evidenced in C. felis (minimum infection rates; 5.3%), C. canis (9.2%), and Pulex irritans (10.0%). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analyses of sequences showed high identity values (> 98%) with R. felis, and all were highly related by phylogenetic analyses. This work shows the first detection of R. felis in fleas collected from animals in Colombia.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Marylin Hidalgo, Grupo Enfermedades Infecciosas, Departamento de Microbiología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Cra. 7 No 43-82, Bogotá, Colombia. E-mail: hidalgo.m@javeriana.edu.co† These authors contributed equally.

Financial support: This study was supported by Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Grant PY003532.

Authors' addresses: Alejandro Ramírez-Hernández, Grupo ParasitologíaVeterinaria, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Bogotá, Colombia, E-mail: aramirezhe@unal.edu.co. Viviana Montoya, Alejandra Martínez, Marcela Mercado, and Marylin Hidalgo, Grupo de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Departamento de Microbiología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia, E-mails: pmontoya@javeriana.edu.co, amartinezr@javeriana.edu.co, mmercado@javeriana.edu.co, and hidalgo.m@javeriana.edu.co. Jorge E. Pérez, Laboratorio de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia, E-mail: labmicro@ucaldas.edu.co. Alberto de la Ossa and Carolina Vélez, Dirección Territorial de Salud de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia, E-mails: tomasossa@hotmail.com and carovelez@hotmail.com. Gloria Estrada, Departamento de Bacteriología, Universidad Católica de Manizales, Manizales, Colombia, E-mail: gestrada19@gmail.com. María I. Correa, Laura Duque, Juan S. Ariza, and Cesar Henao, Departamento de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia, E-mails: mariaico00@hotmail.com, lalitaduque7@hotmail.com, juanariza1709@hotmail.com, and cesar.a.velez@hotmail.com. Gustavo Valbuena, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, E-mail: gvalbuen@utmb.edu.

Reprint requests: Marylin Hidalgo, Grupo Enfermedades Infecciosas, Departamento de Microbiología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Cra. 7 No 43-82, Bogotá, Colombia, E-mail: hidalgo.m@javeriana.edu.co.

Save