Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in Two High-Risk Communities of South Côte d'Ivoire with Particular Emphasis on Pre-School–Aged Children

Jean T. Coulibaly Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Unité de Formation et de Recherche Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire; Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire; Departement d'Agboville, Centre de Santé Urbain d'Azaguié, Azaguié, Côte d'Ivoire

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Yves K. N'Gbesso Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Unité de Formation et de Recherche Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire; Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire; Departement d'Agboville, Centre de Santé Urbain d'Azaguié, Azaguié, Côte d'Ivoire

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Nicaise A. N'Guessan Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Unité de Formation et de Recherche Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire; Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire; Departement d'Agboville, Centre de Santé Urbain d'Azaguié, Azaguié, Côte d'Ivoire

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Mirko S. Winkler Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Unité de Formation et de Recherche Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire; Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire; Departement d'Agboville, Centre de Santé Urbain d'Azaguié, Azaguié, Côte d'Ivoire

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Jürg Utzinger Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Unité de Formation et de Recherche Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire; Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire; Departement d'Agboville, Centre de Santé Urbain d'Azaguié, Azaguié, Côte d'Ivoire

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Eliézer K. N'Goran Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Unité de Formation et de Recherche Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire; Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire; Departement d'Agboville, Centre de Santé Urbain d'Azaguié, Azaguié, Côte d'Ivoire

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Schistosomiasis control efforts mainly target school–aged children. We studied the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in two high-risk communities in south Côte d'Ivoire, placing particular emphasis on pre-school–aged children. We used a suite of diagnostic techniques, including Kato–Katz, urine filtration, reagent strips, and urine circulating cathodic antigen cassettes. Risk factors for schistosomiasis were determined by focus group discussions and a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in the two study villages among the pre-school–aged children (age < 6 years) was 20.9% and 25.0%, whereas several-fold higher prevalences were found in school–aged children (58.7–68.4%) and adolescents/adults (59.5–61.7%). The prevalence of S. haematobium in the three age groups was 5.9–17.3%, 10.9–18.4%, and 3.8–21.3%, respectively. Most participants had light-intensity infections. Mothers' occupations and older siblings play important roles in the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in pre-schoolers. In the current epidemiologic settings, more attention is warranted on pre-school–aged children and adolescents/adults for successful schistosomiasis control.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Jean T. Coulibaly, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, PO Box, CH-4002, Basel, Switzerland. E-mail: jean.coulibaly@unibas.ch

Financial support: This study received financial support from the Carolito Foundation for a PhD fellowship granted to J.T.C. The research of J.U. and E.K.N. is financially supported by Fairmed the and Swiss National Science Foundation project no. IZ70Z0_123900.

Authors' addresses: Jean T. Coulibaly, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Unité de Formation et de Recherche Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny; and Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, E-mail: jean.coulibaly@unibas.ch. Yves K. N'Gbesso, Departement d'Agboville, Centre de Santé Urbain d'Azaguié, Azaguié, Côte d'Ivoire, E-mail: koutouann@yahoo.fr. Nicaise A. N'Guessan, Unité de Formation et de Recherche Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, E-mail: nicaisayan@yahoo.fr. Mirko S. Winkler and Jürg Utzinger, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel; and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, E-mails: mirko.winkler@unibas.ch and juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch. Eliézer K. N'Goran, Unité de Formation et de Recherche Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny; and Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, E-mail: eliezerngoran@yahoo.fr.

Reprint requests: Eliézer K. N'Goran, Unité de Formation et de Recherche Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, 22 BP 770, Abidjan 22, Côte d'Ivoire, E-mail: eliezerngoran@yahoo.fr.

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